pastel

pastel1
/pa stel"/; esp. Brit. /pas"tl/, n.
1. a color having a soft, subdued shade.
2. a kind of dried paste made of pigments ground with chalk and compounded with gum water.
3. a chalklike crayon made from such paste.
4. the art of drawing with such crayons.
5. a drawing so made.
6. a short, light prose study or sketch.
adj.
7. having a soft, subdued shade.
8. drawn with pastels: a pastel portrait.
[1655-65; < F < It pastello < LL pastellus, var. of L pastillus (see PASTILLE)]
pastel2
/pas"tel/, n.
1. the woad plant.
2. the dye made from it.
[1570-80; < MF < Pr < ML pastellum (neut.) woad (orig. woad paste), for LL pastellus (masc.), dim. of pasta PASTE; change of gender by influence of L glastum woad]

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Drawing medium consisting of fragile, finger-size crayons called pastels, made of powdered pigments combined with a minimum of nongreasy binder (usually gum tragacanth or, from the mid-20th century, methyl cellulose).

Because pigment applied with pastel does not change in colour value, the final effect can be seen immediately. Pastel remains on the surface of the paper and thus can be easily obliterated unless protected by glass or a fixative spray of glue size or gum solution. When pastel is applied in short strokes or linearly, it is usually classed as drawing; when it is rubbed, smeared, and blended to achieve painterly effects, it is often regarded as a painting medium.

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art
 dry drawing medium executed with fragile, finger-size sticks. These drawing crayons, called pastels, are made of powdered pigments combined with a minimum of nongreasy binder, usually gum tragacanth or, from the mid-20th century, methyl cellulose. Made in a wide range of colour values, the darkest in each hue consists of pure pigment and binder, the others having varying admixtures of inert whites. Once the colours are applied to paper, they appear fresh and bright. Because they do not change in colour value, the final effect can be seen immediately. Pastel remains on the surface of the paper and thus can be easily obliterated unless protected by glass or a fixative spray of glue size or gum solution. Fixatives, however, have a disadvantage in that they tend to change the tone and flatten the grain of pastel drawings. When pastel is applied in short strokes or linearly, it is usually classed as drawing; when it is rubbed, smeared, and blended to achieve painterly effects, it is often regarded as a painting medium. The latter technique was principally used until the late 19th century, when the linear method came to be preferred. Special papers for pastel have been made since the 18th century with widely varying textures, some like fine sandpaper, with a flocked or suedelike finish, prominently ribbed or strongly marked by the drying felts.

 Pastels originated in northern Italy in the 16th century and were used by Jacopo Bassano (Bassano, Jacopo) and Federico Barocci (Barocci, Federico). The German artist Hans Holbein the Younger (Holbein, Hans, the Younger) and the French artists Jean (Clouet, Jean) and François Clouet (Clouet, François) did pastel portraits in the same period. The greatest popularity of the medium came in the 18th century, when it was primarily used for portraiture. Rosalba Carriera (Carriera, Rosalba) (Italian), Jean-Baptiste Chardin (Chardin, Jean-Baptiste-Siméon), François Boucher (Boucher, François), Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, Jean-Baptiste Perronneau (all French), Jean-Étienne Liotard (Liotard, Jean-Étienne) (Swiss), and Anton Raphael Mengs (Mengs, Anton Raphael) (German) were among the major masters of pastel. Largely revived and revitalized in the last third of the 19th century by the French artist Edgar Degas (Degas, Edgar), pastels figure importantly in the work of such artists as Auguste Renoir (Renoir, Pierre-Auguste), Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de), Odilon Redon (Redon, Odilon), Gustave Moreau (Moreau, Gustave), Édouard Vuillard (Vuillard, Édouard), Pierre Bonnard (Bonnard, Pierre) (all French), Mary Cassatt (Cassatt, Mary) (American expatriate), Joan Miró (Miró, Joan), and Paul Klee (Klee, Paul) (Swiss).
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • pastel — 1. (pa stèl) s. m. 1°   Nom donné à des crayons composés de différentes couleurs broyées et réduites en pâte avec de l eau de gomme ; peindre en pastel, c est peindre avec ces couleurs, qu on mêle suivant les diverses teintes qu on veut faire.… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • pastel — PASTÉL, pasteluri, s.n., adj. invar. 1. s.n. Creion colorat, moale, pentru desen, făcut din pigmenţi pulverizaţi, amestecaţi cu talc şi cu gumă arabică. ♦ Desen executat cu acest fel de creioane. 2. s.n. Poezie cu conţinut liric, în care se… …   Dicționar Român

  • pastel — sustantivo masculino 1. Pieza dulce y esponjosa, de masa de harina, huevo, mantequilla y otros ingredientes, cocida al horno y recubierta de chocolate u otro ingrediente dulce: un pastel de cumpleaños. Papá nos trajo una bandeja de pasteles. 2.… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • pastel — (Del fr. ant. pastel). 1. adj. Dicho de un color: De tono suave. Una falda de muselina en tonos pastel. 2. m. Masa de harina y manteca, cocida al horno, en que ordinariamente se envuelve crema o dulce, y a veces carne, fruta o pescado. 3.… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • pastel — pastel, descubrir(se) el pastel expr. descubrir el secreto, el engaño, el timo. ❙ «El problema viene después, cuando tienes que descubrir el pastel.» Juanma Iturriaga, Con chandal y a lo loco. ❙ «El pastel se descubrió cuando la Cruz Roja… …   Diccionario del Argot "El Sohez"

  • Pastel — Pas tel, n. [F.; cf. It. pastello. Cf. {Pastil}.] 1. A crayon made of a paste composed of a color ground with gum water. [Sometimes incorrectly written {pastil}.] Charming heads in pastel. W. Black. [1913 Webster] 2. (Bot.) A plant affording a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • pastel — s. m. 1. Tipo de lápis de cor. 2.  [Pintura] Técnica de pintura em que se usam esses lápis de cor. 3.  [Pintura] Desenho ou quadro feito com lápis de cores.   ‣ Etimologia: italiano pastello pastel s. m. 1.  [Culinária] Iguaria de massa de… …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • pastel — (n.) 1660s, crayons, chalk like pigment used in crayons, from Fr. pastel crayon, from It. pastello a pastel, lit. material reduced to a paste, from L.L. pastellus dye from the leaves of the woad plant, dim. of pasta (see PASTA (Cf. pasta)).… …   Etymology dictionary

  • pastel — pastel, pastille A pastel is an artist s crayon or a light shade of a colour, whereas a pastille is a small sweet or lozenge …   Modern English usage

  • pastel — I {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż III, D. u; lm D. i || ów {{/stl 8}}{{stl 20}} {{/stl 20}}{{stl 12}}1. {{/stl 12}}{{stl 7}} rodzaj farby artystycznej w postaci miękkiej kredki, pałeczki, zrobionej z drobno zmielonego pyłu w określonym kolorze z… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • pastel — [pas tel′] n. [Fr < It pastello < VL * pastellum, dim. of LL pasta,PASTE] 1. a) ground coloring matter mixed with gum and formed into a crayon b) such a crayon 2. a picture drawn with such crayons 3. drawing with pastels as an art form or… …   English World dictionary

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