Paschal II

(Ranieri)died 1118, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1099-1118.

* * *

orig. Raniero

born , Bieda di Galeata, near Ravenna
died Jan. 21, 1118

Pope (1099–1118).

He fostered the First Crusade and favoured Gregorian reforms, but his pontificate was dominated by the Investiture Controversy. Paschal came to terms on the issue of lay investiture with Henry I of England and Philip I of France (1107). His negotiations with Emperors Henry IV and Henry V were unsuccessful, and he was imprisoned by Henry V (1111). While a prisoner, he agreed to royal investiture of bishops and crowned Henry emperor, but a church council declared his concessions invalid, and the archbishop of Vienne excommunicated the emperor.

* * *

pope
original name  Raniero , Latin  Ranierus 
born c. 1050, Bieda di Galeata, near Ravenna [Italy]
died Jan. 21, 1118, Rome

      pope from 1099 to 1118.

      He entered a monastery as a boy and was made cardinal by Pope St. Gregory VII about 1080. He was legate to Spain under Pope Urban II, whom he was elected to succeed on Aug. 13, 1099.

      Although Paschal fostered the First Crusade (Crusades) and followed Gregory's great policies of church reform, his pontificate was dominated by the Investiture Controversy—the long conflict between popes and secular rulers over control of ecclesiastical appointments. In 1107 settlements on the issue of lay investiture were made with kings Henry I of England and Philip I of France.

      Paschal's struggles with the Holy Roman emperors Henry IV and Henry V, however, proved inconclusive. After unsuccessful negotiations in 1106, 1107, and 1110, he officially condemned Henry V, who invaded Italy. They met at Sutri, where Henry renounced the right to investiture, and Paschal agreed to have the German church return all lands and rights received from the crown—an agreement that, when promulgated at St. Peter's in Rome on Feb. 12, 1111, caused a tumult among the German bishops. They felt deprived of power, and their protests killed the pact. A popular rising forced Henry to leave Rome temporarily, and he took Paschal as prisoner. After two months of harsh captivity, Paschal consented to Henry's demands on royal investiture of bishops, and on April 13, 1111, he crowned Henry as Holy Roman emperor.

      Strong opposition arose in the Curia against Paschal. A council declared invalid the privilege he had granted Henry, and, against his will, Archbishop Guido of Vienne excommunicated the emperor. Paschal finally revoked the privilege in 1112 and renewed his earlier condemnations of regal investiture in 1116. The problem remained unsolved until 1122, when Pope Calixtus II concluded the Concordat of Worms, which secured peace between the church and the empire.

Additional Reading
“Paschal II” by William C. Schroder in Encyclopedia of the Vatican and Papacy, ed. Frank J. Coppa (1999), pp. 313–314.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Paschal — is a variant spelling of the name Pascal (see: Pascal (name)). Two popes and two antipopes have taken this name:* Antipope Paschal (687) * Pope Paschal I (817 824) * Pope Paschal II (1099 1118) * Antipope Paschal III (1164 1168)Paschal is also… …   Wikipedia

  • Paschal I —     Pope Paschal I     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Paschal I     (817 824)     The date of his birth is unknown; he died in April, May, or June, 824. He was the son of a Roman named Bonosus. While still young he joined the Roman clergy and was …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Paschal II —     Pope Paschal II     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Paschal II     (RAINERIUS).     Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 Jan., 1118. Born in central Italy, he was received at an early age as a monk in… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Paschal — Pas chal (p[a^]s kal), a. [L. paschalis: cf. F. pascal. See {Pasch}.] Of or pertaining to the passover, or to Easter; as, a paschal lamb; paschal eggs. Longfellow. [1913 Webster] {Paschal candle} (R. C. Ch.), a large wax candle, blessed and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • paschal — Paschal, [pasch]ale. adj. Qui appartient à la feste de Pasques. L Agneau Paschal que les Juifs mangeoient à la feste de Pasques. Cierge Paschal. devoir Paschal. communion Paschale …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • paschal — Paschal, m. acut. Ores est nom substantif et propre, et ores nom adjectif, comme, Agneau Paschal, Paschalis, et vient de Pascha …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • paschal — (adj.) early 15c., of or pertaining to Easter, from L.L. paschalis, from pascha Passover, Easter, from Gk. pascha Passover, from Aramaic pasha pass over, corresponding to Heb. pesah, from pasah to pass over (see PASSOVER (Cf. Passover)). Pasche… …   Etymology dictionary

  • paschał — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż I, D. u, Mc. paschałale {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} duża, ozdobna świeca z wosku, zapalana w czasie niektórych uroczystości kościelnych w okresie wielkanocnym, święcona w Wielką Sobotę, będąca symbolem Chrystusa… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • paschal — ► ADJECTIVE 1) relating to Easter. 2) relating to the Jewish Passover. ORIGIN from Latin pascha feast of Passover , from Hebrew …   English terms dictionary

  • Paschal (I) — ▪ antipope died , 692, Italy       antipope against both the rival antipope Theodore and the legitimate pope St. Sergius I (Sergius I, Saint) during 687.       After the death of Pope Conon in September 687, the Roman populace proceeded to… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.