Nyaya

/nyah"yeuh/, n.
(in ancient India) a philosophical school emphasizing logical analysis of knowledge, which is considered as deriving from perception, inference, analogy, and reliable testimony.
[ < Skt nyaya]

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One of the six darshans (orthodox systems) of Indian philosophy, important for its analysis of logic and epistemology and for its detailed model of the reasoning method of inference.

Like other darshans, Nyaya is both a philosophy and a religion; its ultimate concern is to bring an end to human suffering, which results from ignorance of reality. It recognizes four valid means of knowledge: perception, inference, comparison, and testimony.

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      (Sanskrit: Rule, or Method), one of the six orthodox systems (darśana) of Indian philosophy, important for its analysis of logic and epistemology. The major contribution of the Nyāya system is its working out in profound detail the reasoning method of inference (see anumāna).

      Like the other systems, Nyāya is both a philosophy and a religion; its ultimate concern is to bring an end to man's suffering, which results from ignorance of reality. Liberation is brought about through right knowledge. Nyāya is thus concerned with the means of right knowledge.

      In its metaphysics, Nyāya is allied to the Vaiśeṣika (Vaisheshika) system, and the two schools were often combined from about the 10th century. Its principal text is the Nyāya-sūtras, ascribed to Gautama (c. 2nd century BC).

      The Nyāya system—from Gautama through his important early commentator Vātsyāyana (c. AD 450) until Udayanācārya (Udayana; 10th century)—became qualified as the Old Nyāya (Prācina-Nyāya) in the 11th century when a new school of Nyāya (Navya-Nyāya, or New Nyāya) arose in Bengal. The best known philosopher of the Navya-Nyāya, and the founder of the modern school of Indian logic, was Gaṅgeśa (13th century).

      The Nyāya school holds that there are four valid means of knowledge: perception (pratyakṣa), inference (anumāna), comparison (upamāna), and testimony (śabda). Invalid knowledge involves memory, doubt, error, and hypothetical argument.

      The Nyāya theory of causation defines a cause as an unconditional and invariable antecedent of an effect. In its emphasis on sequence—an effect does not preexist in its cause—the Nyāya theory is at variance with the Sāṃkhya-Yoga and Vedantist views, but it is not unlike modern Western inductive logic in this respect.

      Three kinds of causes are distinguished: inherent, or material cause (the substance out of which an effect is produced); non-inherent cause (which helps in the production of a cause); and efficient cause (the power that helps the material cause produce the effect). God is not the material cause of the universe, since atoms and souls are also eternal, but is rather the efficient cause.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nyaya — (Sanskrit: Regel, Methode, Analyse) ist eines der sechs orthodoxen Systeme der indischen Philosophie. Das Nyaya setzt sich vorrangig mit den Themengebieten Epistemologie und Logik auseinander, und legte innerhalb dieses Rahmens einige Standards… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nyaya — Nyâya Religions Védisme Brahmanisme Hindouisme Ajîvika Jaïnisme …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nyâya — Nyāya est la sixième et dernière école « orthodoxe » (sanskrit en devanāgarī: न्याय; signifie: la « méthode », le « système » ou la « règle »)[1], sans doute fondée par le brahmane Akshapāda Gautama, est… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • NYAYA — NY YA L’un des darshanas de la tradition brahmanique, celui qui correspond à la logique. Cette tradition, en effet, répartit la matière des spéculations philosophiques visant à l’interpréter en six approches possibles, qu’elle nomme darshanas… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Nyaya —   [Sanskrit »Regel«, »Prinzip«, »Methode«] der, , das System der Logik, eines der sechs Systeme der klassischen indischen Philosophie, das im 2. Jahrhundert n. Chr. von einem Handbuch für Disputationsregeln ausging, in das Elemente einer… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • nyaya — NYÁYA s.f. Şcoală filozofică indiană, potrivit căreia lumea există obiectiv şi se compune din atomi necreaţi de divinitate, pe care aceasta numai îi combină. [< sanscr. nyaya – temei, metodă]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 24.06.2005. Sursa: DN … …   Dicționar Român

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  • Nyaya — (Skt., logical analysis) One of the six orthodox Hindu schools (darshanas ). The Nyaya (or, in its alliance with Hindu metaphysics of nature, the Nyaya–Vaisheshika ) school concentrates upon our knowledge of reality. Perception, inference,… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • nyaya — ˈnyäyə noun ( s) Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: Sanskrit nyāya rule, model, maxim, logic, from ni down, back (i.e., to an original model) + eti he goes more at nether, issue …   Useful english dictionary

  • Nyāya — El niaiá es uno de los seis darshana o doctrinas ortodoxas (astika) hinduistas. न्याय, en escritura devánagari. nyāya, en el sistema IAST de transliteración sánscrita. Pronunciación: niaiá.[1] Etimología: deriva de la raíz sánscrita ní, que… …   Wikipedia Español

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