neural crest

Embryol.
a group of ectodermal cells that develop into a variety of tissues, including spinal and autonomic ganglia, connective tissue around the brain and spinal cord, and parts of the facial bones.
[1880-85]

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      group of embryonic cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube (the precursor of the spinal cord) but that do not remain as a part of the central nervous system. The cells of the neural crest migrate to numerous locations in the body and contribute to the formation of diverse structures, mostly associated with the nervous system. The factors determining their migration and differentiation are not known.

      The most conspicuous of the neural crest derivatives are the melanocytes, cells in the deep layers of the epidermis that contain pigment and are responsible for skin coloration. In the head region the neural crest cells contribute significantly to the formation of the facial bones. Odontoblasts, the cells that give rise to the dentine of the teeth, have their origin in the neural crest, as do many of the cranial nerve cells. The neural crest also contributes to the formation of the meningeal covering of the brain and is the source of Schwann cells, which surround and insulate nerve fibres in the peripheral nervous system. In addition to Schwann cells and melanocytes, the neural crest of the trunk region gives rise to paired chains of sympathetic nerve ganglia and to certain cells of the adrenal gland.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Neural crest — The formation of neural crest during the process of neurulation. Neural crest is first induced in the region of the neural plate border. After neural tube closure, neural crest delaminates from the region between the dorsal neural tube and… …   Wikipedia

  • neural crest — n the ridge of one of the folds forming the neural tube that gives rise to the spinal ganglia and various structures of the autonomic nervous system called also neural ridge compare NEURAL PLATE * * * the two bands of ectodermal tissue that flank …   Medical dictionary

  • neural crest — n. Embryology a band of cells that lie along the length of the neural tube and developing spinal cord: it is the primordium of many structures, including the spinal ganglia …   English World dictionary

  • neural crest — the two bands of ectodermal tissue that flank the neural plate of the early embryo. Cells of the neural crest migrate throughout the embryo and develop into sensory nerve cells and peripheral nerve cells of the autonomic nervous system …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • neural crest — noun Date: circa 1885 the ridge of one of the folds forming the neural tube that gives rise to the spinal ganglia and various structures of the autonomic nervous system …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • neural crest — part of the neural ridge in embryos that differentiates into various tissues including melanophores, peripheral neurons and head cartilage …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • neural crest — A group of embryonic cells that separate from the neural plate during neurulation and migrate to give several different lineages of adult cells: the spinal and autonomic ganglia, the glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, and non neuronal… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • neural crest — noun a strip of ectodermal material in the early vertebrate embryo inserted between the prospective neural plate and the epidermis …   Wiktionary

  • neural crest — noun : the ridge of a neural fold giving rise to the spinal ganglia and various autonomic structures * * * Embryol. a group of ectodermal cells that develop into a variety of tissues, including spinal and autonomic ganglia, connective tissue… …   Useful english dictionary

  • neural crest — neu′ral crest′ n. dvl a group of ectodermal cells of the embryo that develop into a variety of tissues, including spinal and autonomic ganglia, connective tissue around the brain and spinal cord, and parts of the facial bones • Etymology: 1880–85 …   From formal English to slang

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