- /nach"iz/, n., pl. Natchez for 2.1. a port in SW Mississippi, on the Mississippi River. 22,015.2. a member of an extinct Muskhogean Indian tribe once living on the lower Mississippi River.
* * *city, seat (1817) of Adams county, southwestern Mississippi, U.S., on the Mississippi River (there bridged to Vidalia, Louisiana), about 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Vicksburg. Established in 1716 as Fort Rosalie by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (Bienville, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de), it survived a massacre (1729) by Natchez Indians for whom it was later named. It passed from France to England (1763) at the conclusion of the French and Indian War and was a haven for loyalists (loyalist) during the American Revolution. In 1779 it was captured by a Spanish expedition under Bernardo de Gálvez and remained under Spanish dominion until 1798 when the United States took possession and made it the first capital (1798–1802) of the Mississippi Territory. During the ensuing years it burgeoned as the commercial and cultural centre of a vast and rich cotton-producing area. It was the southern terminus of the Natchez Trace (an overland trail from Nashville, Tennessee; now the Natchez Trace Parkway) and an important river port. During the American Civil War it was bombarded by a Union gunboat and was occupied in July 1863.Natchez recovered from its post-Civil War decline to become one of the state's leading industrial centres. The production of wood pulp, lumber, petroleum, and natural gas form the basis of the economy; tourism (including casino gambling) and the manufacture of tires are also important. It retains many features of the antebellum South and is noted for its annual spring and fall pilgrimages, during which several antebellum homes are open to the public, and performances and historical pageants are held. An inn, built about 1798 and restored as the House on Ellicott's Hill, was the gathering place for adventurers who sailed the river or traveled the Natchez Trace. Shops and restaurants now occupy the site of Natchez Under-the-Hill, a 19th-century town of bordellos and taverns that was a haven for outlaws and boatmen. The month-long Natchez Opera Festival is held annually in May. The city is home to a branch of Copiah-Lincoln Community College and Natchez College.A few miles to the east in Washington is Historic Jefferson College (1802–63; 1866–1964), which Jefferson Davis (Davis, Jefferson) briefly attended; it was on its campus under the “Burr Oaks” that Aaron Burr (Burr, Aaron) was given one of his trials for treason (1807), and there the state's first constitutional convention was held (1817) in a Methodist church building. Natchez National Historical Park (authorized 1988) preserves three antebellum properties: Fort Rosalie, Melrose (an estate), and the William Johnson House (owned by a free African American). Homochitto National Forest, Natchez State Park, Grand Village of the Natchez Indians, and Emerald Mound (dating from 1250–1600) are nearby. Inc. 1803. Pop. (1990) 19,460; (2000) 18,464.▪ peopleNorth American Indian tribe of the Macro-Algonquian linguistic phylum (Macro-Algonquian languages) that inhabited the east side of the lower Mississippi River. When French colonizers first interacted with the Natchez in the early 18th century, the tribal population comprised about 6,000 individuals living in nine villages between the Yazoo and Pearl rivers near the site of the present-day city of Natchez, Miss.The traditional Natchez economy relied primarily on corn (maize) agriculture. They made clothes by weaving a fabric from the inner bark of the mulberry and excelled in pottery production. Like several other groups of Southeast Indians (Southeast Indian), the Natchez built substantial earthen mounds as foundations for large wattle-and-daub (wattle and daub) temple structures. Their dwellings—built in precise rows around a plaza or common ground—were also constructed of wattle and daub and had arched cane roofs.Traditional Natchez religion venerated the Sun (sun worship), which was represented by a perpetual fire kept burning in a temple. All fires in a village, including the sacred fire, were allowed to die once a year on the eve of the midsummer Green Corn ceremony, or Busk. The sacred fire was remade at dawn of the festival day, and all the village hearths were then lit anew from the sacred flames.Natchez social organization was notable for its caste system; the system drew from and supported Natchez religious beliefs and classified individuals as suns, nobles, honoured people, and commoners. Persons of the sun caste were required to marry commoners; the offspring of female suns and commoners were suns, while the children of male suns and commoners belonged to the caste of honoured people. The heads of villages also claimed descent from the Sun, and the monarch was referred to as the Great Sun. He was entitled to marry several wives and to maintain servants; upon his death his wives and some servants, along with any others who wished to join him in the afterlife, were ritually sacrificed.Relations between the French and the Natchez were friendly at first, but three French-Natchez wars—in 1716, 1723, and 1729—resulted in the French, with the aid of the Choctaw, driving the Natchez from their villages. In 1731 some 400 Natchez were captured and sold into the West Indian slave trade; the remainder took refuge with the Chickasaw and later with the Upper Creeks (Creek) and Cherokee. When the latter tribes were forced to move west into Indian Territory (Oklahoma), the Natchez went with them.Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 500 individuals of Natchez descent.
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Natchez — • Diocese located in Mississippi Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Natchez Natchez † … Catholic encyclopedia
NATCHEZ — Tribu indienne d’Amérique du Nord qui parle une langue muskogéenne, les Natchez habitaient sur la rive est du cours inférieur du Mississippi. Au début du XVIIIe siècle, à l’époque de la première colonie française, la tribu comprenait environ 6… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Natchez — may refer to: Natchez people, a Native American nation Natchez language, the language of that Native American tribe Natchez, Mississippi, United States Natchez, Louisiana, United States Natchez, Indiana, United States Natchez (boat), several… … Wikipedia
Natchez — Natchez, LA U.S. village in Louisiana Population (2000): 583 Housing Units (2000): 264 Land area (2000): 1.073778 sq. miles (2.781073 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.073778 sq. miles (2.781073… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Natchez, LA — U.S. village in Louisiana Population (2000): 583 Housing Units (2000): 264 Land area (2000): 1.073778 sq. miles (2.781073 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.073778 sq. miles (2.781073 sq. km) FIPS … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Natchez, MS — U.S. city in Mississippi Population (2000): 18464 Housing Units (2000): 8479 Land area (2000): 13.204609 sq. miles (34.199778 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.644693 sq. miles (1.669748 sq. km) Total area (2000): 13.849302 sq. miles (35.869526 sq.… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Natchez — Natch ez, n. pl. (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians who formerly lived near the site of the city of Natchez, Mississippi. In 1729 they were subdued by the French; the survivors joined the Creek Confederacy. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Natchez  — Natchez, Indianervolk mit eigner Sprache in Nordamerika, das früher am untern Mississippi in der Gegend der nach ihm benannten Stadt Natchez (s. d.) saß, jetzt aber bis auf wenige Individuen im Indianerterritorium ausgestorben ist. Die N., von… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Natchez — [ nætʃɪz], nordamerikanischer Indianerstamm, am unteren Mississippi, wurde seit 1730 in drei Kriegen mit den Franzosen fast aufgerieben; Nachfahren leben heute unter den Cherokee und Creek in Oklahoma. Ihre Sprache gehört zum Muskogee. Die… … Universal-Lexikon
Natchez — Natchez, by i USA, stat Mississippi, ligger hovedsageligst på en 60 meter høj Bluff på venstre bred af Mississippi. Den er anlagt 1700 og har navn efter indianerstammen Natchez, der er kendt fra kolonisternes kampe og fra Chateaubriand … Danske encyklopædi
Natchez — [nach′iz] n. [Fr < a Natchez place name ] 1. pl. a member of a North American Indian people formerly living in SW Mississippi and later in Oklahoma 2. the extinct language of this people, thought to be related to Muskogean … English World dictionary