Motown

/moh"town'/, n.
1. Detroit, Michigan: a nickname.
2. Also called Motown sound. an upbeat, often pop-influenced style of rhythm and blues associated with the city of Detroit and with numerous black vocalists and vocal groups since the 1950s and characterized by compact, danceable arrangements.

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U.S. recording company that gave its name to the hugely popular style of soul music that it created in the 1960s.

It was founded in Detroit, Mich., in 1959 by the songwriter Berry Gordy, Jr. (b. 1929). (Motown, a contraction of "Motor Town," refers to Detroit's automotive industry.) It scored its first nationwide hits with "Shop Around" (1960) by the Miracles (see Smokey Robinson) and "Please Mr. Postman" (1961) by the Marvelettes. Its roster soon included the Temptations, the Four Tops, the Supremes, Marvin Gaye, and Stevie Wonder. The songwriting team Holland-Dozier-Holland (see Brian and Eddie Holland) helped create the "Motown sound," which typically featured lyrical ballads sung to an infectiously rhythmic accompaniment. Motown became one of the most successful black-owned businesses and one of the most influential independent record companies in U.S. history. Later Motown names included the Isley Brothers, Gladys Knight and the Pips, and, in 1969, the Jackson 5 (see Michael Jackson). Motown continued to produce best-selling recordings by new artists such as Lionel Ritchie into the 1980s. Gordy moved the company headquarters to Los Angeles in 1971, and he finally sold the label to MCA in 1988.

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▪ American corporation
Introduction
in full  Motown Record Corporation , also called  Hitsville 
 recording company founded by Berry Gordy, Jr. (Gordy, Berry, Jr.), in Detroit, Michigan (Detroit), U.S., in January 1959 that became one of the most successful black-owned businesses and one of the most influential independent record companies in American history. The company gave its name to the hugely popular style of soul music that it created.

      Moving from Georgia to Detroit, Gordy's family was part of the massive migration of hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the South during and after World War I, lured largely by the promise of work in Northern manufacturing industries such as Detroit's auto plants. Gordy's parents, hardworking entrepreneurs, instilled in their children the gospel of hard work and religious faith. They also played a major role in financing Gordy in his early years in the music business.

      Following an attempt at a professional boxing career and a stint in the army during the Korean War, Gordy entered the music business. He briefly owned a jazz record store, but his true love was songwriting. Although he could not read music, he demonstrated an unerring ability to gauge whether a song had the elements of popular appeal. Before forming Motown, Gordy tried to make it as an independent songwriter and record producer, cowriting hit songs for Jackie Wilson (Wilson, Jackie), another former boxer and Detroiter, and Marv Johnson. Despite his success, Gordy remained on the fringes of the popular music business, making very little money, until he discovered William (“Smokey”) Robinson (Robinson, Smokey, and the Miracles), a Detroit high schooler with a soothing falsetto and an ear for sweet lyrics.

      In 1959, not long after recording Robinson's group, the Miracles, for New York-based End Records and establishing Jobete Publishing Company, Gordy began Motown Records (its name derived from Detroit's nickname, “Motor City”). A number of factors came together to make Motown's success possible at this time. First, after World War II, big-band swing, the dominant popular dance music in the United States during the Great Depression, became passé. Big musical units were no longer economically feasible. jazz had been taken over by a new group of Young Turk stylists; calling themselves beboppers (bebop), they were inclined to play music for listening rather than dancing.

      Second, a new urban dance music, rhythm and blues, was ascendant. Emerging primarily from inner-city ghettos and popularized by such bandleaders as Louis Jordan (Jordan, Louis) and Lionel Hampton (Hampton, Lionel), rhythm and blues was almost exclusively recorded by small independent labels. Of the three major recording companies—Columbia, Capitol, and Decca—only the last showed any interest in the exciting new music that would spawn rock and roll (rock). During the 1950s it was possible for a young entrepreneur with an ear for this music to start a moderately successful independent company producing a sound that appealed to young people and inner-city African Americans.

      Third, by the late 1950s two other black-owned independent record companies that specialized in rhythm and blues and rock and roll had been enjoying considerable success for nearly a decade—Peacock Records, formed in Houston, Texas, by Don Robey, and Vee Jay Records, formed in Chicago by Vivian Carter Bracken, James Bracken, and Calvin Carter. Therefore Gordy was not going into completely uncharted territory as a black music entrepreneur. In 1959, the year Gordy founded Motown, Harry Belafonte became the first black to produce a Hollywood film, Odds Against Tomorrow, through his own company. The social change promised by the 1954 Board of Education of Topeka (Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka) school desegregation decision and the new civil rights (civil rights movement) activism made this a heady time indeed to be an enterprising African American—anything seemed possible. Moreover, black radio had become a force in the marketing of popular music after World War II. This gave black listeners great clout as consumers and made it possible for black record company owners to market their wares directly to this growing audience.

 During the 1960s Motown became one of the reigning presences in American popular music, along with the Beatles (Beatles, the). Gordy assembled an array of talented local people (many of whom had benefited from the excellent music education program at Detroit public schools in the 1950s) at 2648 West Grand Boulevard, destined to become the most famous address in Detroit. Serving as both recording studio and administrative headquarters, this two-story house became the home of “Hitsville.” Motown's roster included several successful solo acts, such as Marvin Gaye (Gaye, Marvin), Stevie Wonder (Wonder, Stevie) (a star as both a child and an adult), and Mary Wells. In addition to the Miracles, who notched Motown's first million-selling single, “Shop Around” (1960), there were several young singing groups, including the Temptations (Temptations, the), Martha and the Vandellas, and the Marvelettes. There also were a number of somewhat older groups that scored big, such as the Four Tops (Four Tops, the), the Contours, and Junior Walker and the All-Stars. A number of acts that were not developed by Motown wound up enjoying hit records during a stint with the company, including the Isley Brothers (Isley Brothers, the) and Gladys Knight and the Pips (Knight, Gladys, and the Pips).

      Yet, despite the considerable acclaim these performers garnered, no Motown act of the 1960s matched the success of the Supremes (Supremes, the), a girl group (girl groups) that scored number one hits with “Where Did Our Love Go,” “Baby Love,” “Come See About Me” (all 1964), “Stop! In the Name of Love,” “Back in My Arms Again,” “I Hear a Symphony” (all 1965), and “You Can't Hurry Love” (1966). Not only were they the second most successful singing group of the decade—surpassed only by the Beatles—but they remain the most successful female singing group of all time. The group's glamorous lead singer, Diana Ross, went on to a remarkable solo career as a singer and a moderately successful career as an actress.

      Not only did Motown's acts become famous but its songwriters and producers also became household, or at least familiar, names. Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Eddie Holland (Holland-Dozier-Holland), who wrote and produced most of the Supremes' mid-1960s hits, were nearly as famous as the Supremes themselves, and their squabble with Gordy over money, which resulted in a nasty lawsuit and their departure from the company, was major industry news. Robinson was an important songwriter at Motown, as were Sylvia Moy, Norman Whitfield, Mickey Stevenson, Ivy Joe Hunter, and Gordy himself. All these songwriters were also producers. Some were assigned by Gordy to work with specific acts. Such fame did some of Motown's writers achieve and such problems did their fame cause for Gordy that, when the Jackson 5 (Jackson, Michael) were signed by the company in 1969, the team that wrote the group's early hits was credited simply as the Corporation.

      Motown had an extraordinary house band (known as the Funk Brothers) made up of some of the best nightclub and bar musicians in black Detroit, including Earl Van Dyke on keyboards, Benny Benjamin on drums, and James Jamerson on bass. They played a huge role in the development of the Motown sound, a branch of soul music that featured more sophisticated arrangements and orchestration than the grittier Southern soul that contemporaneously flourished at as the Memphis Sound. Motown brought together rhythm-and-blues, gospel (gospel music), and pop influences as it sought to “cross over” (i.e., move beyond single-genre listeners) to reach a wide audience that included white teenagers. Motown records were specifically mixed to sound good on car radios and were characterized by a thumping backbeat that made dancing easy for everyone. Motown sought to be and became the “Sound of Young America.”

      Despite its great number of hits, Motown was actually a small company, but it was run with unmatched efficiency. Gordy prided himself on having learned about producing a quality product from a brief stint on the assembly line at an auto plant. He had rigorous quality control meetings, and only records that could pass the harsh criticism of his assembled brain trust were released. As a result of Gordy's stringent measures, at the height of its popularity (in the mid- to late 1960s), Motown enjoyed the highest hit ratio for its released singles of any record company in history. In truth, Gordy had to employ these extraordinary means if a company as small as his was to survive against bigger companies in the popular music business.

      Artist development at Motown was comprehensive. Equal parts finishing school and academy of popular arts, the company provided its acts with elaborate choreography under the tutelage of Cholly Atkins. Young women raised in public housing projects, like the Supremes, were schooled in the social graces, and chaperones accompanied the package-tour bus cavalcades that brought Motown to other parts of the United States during the company's early years.

 Motown enjoyed its greatest success between 1965 and 1968, when it dominated the Billboard charts. Although the company was never quite the force in the 1970s that it was in the '60s (having lost several key performers), it was still a formidable enterprise with the Jackson 5, the Commodores, Wonder, and Ross. In 1971 Motown released what became, arguably, the most influential soul record ever, Gaye's What's Going On. In the late 1960s Detroit was wracked with violent race riots, and in the early '70s the company relocated to Los Angeles, where its move into filmmaking was generally fruitful. Motown's most famous film, Lady Sings the Blues (1972), starred Ross and was loosely based on the career of jazz singer Billie Holiday (Holiday, Billie).

      In the 1980s Gordy found it difficult to prosper in a music industry increasingly dominated by multinational conglomerates, and in 1988 he sold Motown to MCA, which later sold the company to PolyGram. Motown remained a force in popular music—a vital, near-primal influence with stunning longevity. No one has quite been able to reproduce the classic Motown sound.

Gerald Early

Representative Works

● The Miracles, “Shop Around” (1960)
● The Marvelettes, “Please Mr. Postman” (1961)
● Mary Wells, “You Beat Me to the Punch” (1962)
● Martha and the Vandellas, “Heat Wave” (1963)
● Stevie Wonder, “Fingertips (Part 2)” (1963)
● Martha and the Vandellas, “Dancing in the Street” (1964)
● The Supremes, “Baby Love” (1964)
● The Supremes, “Where Did Our Love Go” (1964)
● The Temptations, “My Girl” (1964)
● Mary Wells, “My Guy” (1964)
● The Four Tops, “I Can't Help Myself” (1965)
● The Miracles, “Ooo Baby Baby” (1965)
● The Miracles, “The Tracks of My Tears” (1965)
● The Supremes, “Stop! In the Name of Love” (1965)
● The Four Tops, “Standing in the Shadows of Love” (1966)
● The Marvelettes, “Don't Mess with Bill” (1966)
● Marvin Gaye, “I Heard It Through the Grapevine” (1968)
● The Jackson 5, “I Want You Back” (1969)
● The Jackson 5, “I'll Be There” (1970)
● Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, “The Tears of a Clown” (1970)
● Diana Ross, “Ain't No Mountain High Enough” (1970)
● Marvin Gaye, What's Going On (1971)
● Marvin Gaye, Trouble Man (1972)
● The Temptations, “Papa Was a Rollin' Stone” (1972)
● Stevie Wonder, Music of My Mind (1972)
● Marvin Gaye, Let's Get It On (1973)
● Diana Ross, “Touch Me in the Morning” (1973)
● Stevie Wonder, Songs in the Key of Life (1976)

Additional Reading
Nelson George, Where Did Our Love Go?: The Rise & Fall of the Motown Sound (1985), is the best history of Motown Records, its triumphs, and its failures. Gerald Early, One Nation Under a Groove: Motown and American Culture (1995), provides a concise analysis of Motown within the context of historical trends in post-World War II American culture. David Morse, Motown and the Arrival of Black Music (1971), offers a very short but helpful early study of Motown and its significance. Ben Fong-Torres, The Motown Album (1990), is a first-rate pictorial history of Motown. The founder of Motown presents a useful autobiography in Berry Gordy, To Be Loved: The Music, the Magic, the Memories of Motown: An Autobiography (1994); Gordy's second wife, Raynoma, contributes an interesting though not always accurate account of Motown and her role in its early years in Raynoma Gordon Singleton, Bryan Brown, and Mim Eichelr, Berry, Me, and Motown (1990). Dr. Licks, Standing in the Shadows of Motown: The Life and Music of Legendary Bassist James Jamerson (1989), insightfully examines the life and music of one of Motown's key studio musicians. Otis Williams, a founding member of one of Motown's most enduring groups, wrote a good autobiography: Otis Williams and Patricia Romanowski, Temptations (1988). Another Motown stalwart, Mary Wilson, wrote a sometimes disputatious work: Mary Wilson, Patricia Romanowski, and Ahrgus Juilliard, Dreamgirl: My Life as a Supreme (1986).

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Universalium. 2010.

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