media

media1
/mee"dee euh/, n.
1. a pl. of medium.
2. (usually used with a pl. v.) the means of communication, as radio and television, newspapers, and magazines, that reach or influence people widely: The media are covering the speech tonight.
adj.
3. pertaining to or concerned with such means: a job in media research.
Usage. MEDIA, like data, is the plural form of a word borrowed directly from Latin. The singular, MEDIUM, early developed the meaning "an intervening agency, means, or instrument" and was first applied to newspapers two centuries ago. In the 1920s MEDIA began to appear as a singular collective noun, sometimes with the plural MEDIAS. This singular use is now common in the fields of mass communication and advertising, but it is not frequently found outside them: The media is (or are) not antibusiness.
media2
/mee"dee euh/, n., pl. mediae /-dee ee'/.
1. Gk. Gram. a voiced plosive, as /b, d, g/.
2. Anat. the middle layer of an artery or lymphatic vessel.
3. Entomol. a longitudinal vein in the middle portion of the wing of an insect.
[1835-45; < LL (grammar sense only), n. use of fem. sing. of L medius central, MID1]

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Ancient country, Middle East.

It was situated in present-day northwestern Iran and was home to the Medes, an Iranian people. In 625 BC Cyaxares united the area's tribes into a kingdom. In 614 BC he captured Ashur and later defeated the Assyrian empire and seized territory in Iran, northern Assyria, and Armenia. In 550 BC it became part of the new Persian Achaemenian dynasty under Cyrus II . Alexander the Great occupied it in 330 BC. In the partition of his empire, southern Media was given to the Macedonians and then to the Seleucids; northern Media became the kingdom of Atropatene, which passed to Parthia, Armenia, and Rome. In 226 BC the whole of Media passed to the Sāsānians, another Persian dynasty.

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▪ ancient region, Iran
      ancient country of northwestern Iran, generally corresponding to the modern regions of Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, and parts of Kermanshah. Media first appears in the texts of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III (858–824 BC), in which peoples of the land of “Mada” are recorded. The inhabitants came to be known as Medes.

      Although Herodotus credits “Deioces son of Phraortes” (probably c. 715) with the creation of the Median kingdom and the founding of its capital city at Ecbatana (modern Hamadan), it was probably not before 625 BC that Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, succeeded in uniting into a kingdom the many Iranian-speaking Median tribes. In 614 he captured Ashur, and in 612, in alliance with Nabopolassar of Babylon, his forces stormed Nineveh, putting an end to the Assyrian (Assyria) empire. The victors divided the Assyrian provinces among themselves, with the Median king taking over a large part of Iran, northern Assyria, and parts of Armenia.

      In many respects the internal organization of the Median empire probably resembled that of Assyria, but little is actually known. Few identifiable “Median” objects have been found, but the Medes apparently favoured rich ornamentation and also received a strong artistic influence from Assyria. Since no Median written documents of any kind have ever been uncovered, their spiritual and economic life is also a matter of conjecture.

      By the victory in 550 of the Persian chief Cyrus II the Great over his suzerain, Astyages of Media, the Medes were made subject to the Persians. In the new Achaemenian Empire they retained a prominent position; in honour and war they stood next to the Persians, and their court ceremonial was adopted by the new sovereigns, who in the summer months resided in Ecbatana.

      Alexander the Great occupied Media in 330, and in the partition of his empire, southern Media was given to the Macedonian commander Peithon and eventually passed to the Seleucids, but the north was left to Atropates, a former general of Darius III, who succeeded in founding an independent kingdom, named Atropatene (Azerbaijan), with its capital at Gazaca (Tabrīz). In later times Atropatene came under the control of Parthia, Armenia, and Rome.

      Southern Media remained a province of the Seleucid empire for a century and a half, and Hellenism was introduced everywhere. About 152 BC, however, Media was taken by the Parthian king Mithradates I, and it remained subject to the Arsacids until about AD 226, when it passed, together with Atropatene, to the Sāsānians. By that time the Medes had lost their distinctive character and had been amalgamated into the one nation of the Iranians.

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Universalium. 2010.

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