Marduk

/mahr"dook/, n. Babylonian Relig.
the chief of the Babylonian deities.
Also, Merodach. Also called Baal Merodach.

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or Bel

In Mesopotamian religion, the chief god of the city of Babylon and the national god of Babylonia.

He began as a god of thunderstorms, and according to legend he became lord of all the gods after conquering the monster of primeval chaos, Tiamat. Marduk's star was the planet Jupiter, and his sacred animals were horses, dogs, and a dragon with a forked tongue, representations of which adorned Babylon's walls.

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▪ Babylonian god
      in Mesopotamian religion, the chief god of the city of Babylon and the national god of Babylonia; as such he was eventually called simply Bel, or Lord. Originally he seems to have been a god of thunderstorms. A poem, known as Enuma elish and dating from the reign of Nebuchadrezzar I (1124–03 BC), relates Marduk's rise to such preeminence that he was the god of 50 names, each one that of a deity or of a divine attribute. After conquering the monster of primeval chaos, Tiamat, he became Lord of the Gods of Heaven and Earth. All nature, including man, owed its existence to him; the destiny of kingdoms and subjects was in his hands.

      Marduk's chief temples at Babylon were the Esagila and the Etemenanki, a ziggurat with a shrine of Marduk on the top. In the Esagila the poem Enuma elish was recited every year at the New Year festival. The goddess named most often as the consort of Marduk was Zarpanitu.

      Marduk's star was Jupiter, and his sacred animals were horses, dogs, and especially the so-called dragon with forked tongue, representations of which adorn his city's walls. On the oldest monuments Marduk is represented holding a triangular spade or hoe, interpreted as an emblem of fertility and vegetation. He is also pictured walking or in his war chariot. Typically, his tunic is adorned with stars; in his hand is a sceptre, and he carries a bow, spear, net, or thunderbolt. Kings of Assyria and Persia also honoured Marduk and Zarpanitu in inscriptions and rebuilt many of their temples.

      Marduk was later known as Bel, a name derived from the Semitic word baal, or “lord.” Bel had all the attributes of Marduk, and his status and cult were much the same. Bel, however, gradually came to be thought of as the god of order and destiny. In Greek writings references to Bel indicate this Babylonian deity and not the Syrian god of Palmyra of the same name.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • MARDUK — (Heb. מְרֹדָךְ, Jer. 50:2), patron deity of the city of Babylon. Although known as a minor god as early as the third millennium, Marduk became an important local deity at the time of the advent of the First Babylonian Dynasty as can be seen… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Marduk — und sein Drache Zeichnung nach einem babylonischen Rollsiegel Marduk (sumerisch: DINGIRAMAR.UD Kalb des Utu ; DINGIRTU.TU.eribu Die untergehende Sonne [1]) war der Stadtgott von Babylon und später der Hauptgott der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Marduk — Marduk …   Википедия

  • MARDUK — ou MARDOUK Le dieu le plus important du panthéon babylonien, à partir du MARDUK XIIe siècle. C’est, dans la théologie classique, le fils d’Enki Ea, le dieu de la sagesse, dont il a hérité la science, la magie et une grande compassion pour… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Marduk — (Merodach bíblico) fue el nombre de un dios de la ultima generación de Mesopotamia y la deidad patrona de la ciudad de Babilonia, quien, cuando esta ciudad se convirtió en el centro político de los estados unificados del Valle de Eufrates en los… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Marduk — Màrduk m DEFINICIJA mit. vrhovni bog Babilona, u mezopotamskoj religiji tvorac čovjeka i svijeta; junak mita Emuna Eliš o stvaranju Babilona; njegovo svetište bilo je u Kuli babilonskoj ETIMOLOGIJA hebr. merodak …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Marduk — [mär′dook΄] n. [Bab] Bab. Myth. the chief deity, orig. a local sun god …   English World dictionary

  • Marduk — Para otros usos de este término, véase Marduk (desambiguación). Marduk y su dragón , de un sello cilíndrico de Babilonia. Marduk (acadio AMAR.UTU, en la Biblia Merodach מְרֹדַךְ) fue el nombre de un dios de la última generación de Mesopotamia y… …   Wikipedia Español

  • MARDUK —    Babylonian god. The origins of this god are obscure, and even the etymology of his name is unclear, a matter that already occupied the minds of Babylonian scholars in antiquity. In later times, his symbol was the hoe, which may reflect some… …   Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia

  • Marduk — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Marduk (homonymie). Le dieu Marduk et son dragon Marduk (en akkadien, AMAR.UTU en sumérien) ou Mardouk, appelé aussi B …   Wikipédia en Français

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