macromolecule

macromolecular /mak'roh meuh lek"yeuh leuhr/, adj.
/mak'reuh mol"euh kyoohl'/, n. Chem.
a very large molecule, as a colloidal particle, protein, or esp. a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms.
[1885-90; MACRO- + MOLECULE]

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Any very large molecule, composed of much larger numbers (hundreds or thousands) of atoms than ordinary molecules.

Some macromolecules are individual entities that cannot be subdivided without losing their identity (e.g., certain proteins, with molecular weights into the millions). Others (polymers) are multiples of a repeating building block (monomer) in chains or networks (e.g., plastics, cellulose). Most macromolecules are in the size range typical of colloids.

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      any very large molecule, usually with a diameter ranging from about 100 to 10,000 angstroms (10-5 to 10-3 millimetre). The molecule is the smallest unit of the substance that retains its characteristic properties; the macromolecule is such a unit but is considerably larger than the ordinary molecule, which usually has a diameter of less than 10 angstroms (10-6 millimetre). Plastics, resins, many synthetic and natural fibres (e.g., nylon and cotton), rubbers, and the biologically important proteins and nucleic acids are among many substances that are made up of macromolecular units.

      Macromolecules are composed of much larger numbers of atoms than ordinary molecules. For example, a molecule of polyethylene, a plastic material, may consist of as many as 2,500 methylene groups, each composed of two hydrogen atoms and one carbon atom. The corresponding molecular weight of such a molecule is on the order of 35,000. insulin, a protein hormone present in the pancreas and responsible for regulation of blood-sugar levels, has a molecular unit derived from 51 amino acids (by themselves molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur). The exact molecular weight of insulin from cattle has been determined to be 5,734.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • macromolécule — [ makromɔlekyl ] n. f. • av. 1948; de macro et molécule ♦ Chim. Molécule formée par l union d un nombre élevé de « motifs moléculaires » identiques et obtenue en général par condensation ou polymérisation (ex. protéine). Adj. MACROMOLÉCULAIRE ,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Macromolecule — Macromolécule Une macromolécule est une très grande molécule. La notion de macromolécule a été introduite en 1922 par le chimiste allemand Hermann Staudinger. Elle résulte généralement de l assemblage par des liaisons covalentes d un grand nombre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • macromolecule — mac ro*mol e*cule, n. (Chem., Biochem.) A very large molecule, especially a polymer having from hundreds to many thousands of atoms, such as {DNA}, {RNA}, {protein}, {polysaccharide}, {polyethylene}, {polycarbonate}, etc. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • macromolecule — macromolecule. См. макромолекула. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • macromolecule — 1886, from MACRO (Cf. macro ) + MOLECULE (Cf. molecule). Apparently coined in On Macro molecules, with the Determinations of the Form of Some of Them, by Anglo Irish physicist G. Johnstone Stoney (1826–1911). Originally of crystals. Meaning… …   Etymology dictionary

  • macromolecule — ► NOUN Chemistry ▪ a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer. DERIVATIVES macromolecular adjective …   English terms dictionary

  • macromolecule — [mak′rəmōl΄mak΄rō mäl′ə kyo͞ol΄] n. a very large molecule, as a protein or polymer molecule, composed of hundreds of thousands of atoms: also macromole [mak′rəmōl΄] macromolecular [mak΄rəmō lek′yo͞o lər] adj …   English World dictionary

  • Macromolecule — The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule . In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non polymeric molecules with …   Wikipedia

  • Macromolécule — Une macromolécule est une très grande molécule, qui possède donc une masse moléculaire élevée[1]. La notion de macromolécule a été introduite en 1922 par le chimiste allemand Hermann Staudinger. Un système formé par un ensemble de macromolécules… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • macromolecule — makromolekulė statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. giant molecule; macromolecule vok. Makromolekül, n rus. макромолекула, f pranc. macromolécule, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

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