Livorno

/lee vawrdd"naw/, n.
a seaport in W Italy on the Ligurian Sea. 177,526. English, Leghorn.

* * *

City (pop., 2001 prelim.: 148,143), Tuscany region, central Italy, on the Ligurian Sea.

Originally a fishing village, it came under Florentine rule in 1421. Cosimo I began construction of the Medici Harbour in the 16th century, and under Ferdinand I of Tuscany (1549–1609) the city became a haven for refugees. In the 18th century Leopold II enlarged the harbour and gave privileges to foreign merchants. Livorno became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860. One of Italy's largest ports, it has extensive commercial activities and a large shipbuilding yard. Historic sites include a cathedral and a 16th-century fort.

* * *

Italy
English  Leghorn , French  Livourne , Latin  Liburnum , or  Liburni Portus 

      city, Toscana ( Tuscany) regione, central Italy. It lies on the Ligurian Sea at the western edge of a cultivated coastal plain and is enclosed east and south by a circle of low hills, the Livornesi Hills.

      Originally a small fishing village, it first became important when it was given by the countess Matilda of Tuscany to the Pisan church (1103), and it was fortified by the Pisans in the 14th century. It was sold in 1399 to the Visconti family, in 1407 to the Genoese, and in 1421 to the Florentines. Its greatest importance dates from the rule of the Florentine Medici family. Cosimo I initiated the construction of the Medici Harbour in 1571; and Ferdinand I, grand duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, gave asylum to many refugees—Roman Catholics from England, Jews and Moors from Spain and Portugal, and others—and launched the community as a commercial centre. Among the princes of Habsburg-Lorraine who succeeded the Medicis, the last, Leopold II (1747–92), is of particular importance; he enlarged the city, gave privileges to foreign merchants, and had the great curved breakwater built to protect the port from the open sea. Livorno flourished as a free port from 1675 until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860. Much of the city has been rebuilt according to the original general plan after sustaining severe damage by bombing during World War II.

      The city is intersected and bordered by canals connecting with the sea and the Arno River (north). Notable landmarks include the Fortezza Vecchia (1521–34) and the Fortezza Nuova (1590; Old and New Forts); the monument to Ferdinand I, a marble statue of the grand duke (1595); and the famous bronze statues of “The Four Moors” (“I Quattro Mori”; 1623–24) by Pietro Tacca. The cathedral (1595) was entirely reconstructed in 1954–59. Other points of interest are the old Protestant cemetery (burial place of the 18th-century English novelist Tobias Smollett) and the two villas where the poets Percy Bysshe Shelley and Lord Byron stayed in 1819 and 1822, respectively. The Giovanni Fattori Civic Museum possesses works of Fattori and other Tuscan artists as well as modern paintings. In the same building is the fine Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi Communal Library. The scenic coastal avenue (Viale Italia) to the southern suburbs of Ardenza and Antignano is marked by numerous bathing places, the civic aquarium, and the Italian Naval Academy.

      The port, one of Italy's largest, has regular services to points on the Mediterranean and beyond and is well served by rail, road, and air (by Pisa airport). Its extensive commercial activities include imports of crude mineral oils, coal, cereals, phosphates and fertilizers, silica sand, and metal minerals; and exports include mineral and derived oils, marble, plate glass, wine, tomato preserves, olive oil, sodium carbonate and sodium hydrate, and copper and its alloys. Livorno has a large shipbuilding yard and smaller yards for ship repair. Industries include metallurgical plants (aluminum, copper), a petroleum refinery, steelworks, and chemical manufactures. Pop. (2006 est.) mun., 160,534.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Livorno — Livorno …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Livorno — Escudo …   Wikipedia Español

  • Livórno [2] — Livórno, Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen ital. Provinz (s. oben) und einer der wichtigsten Hafen und Handelsplätze Italiens (s. den Plan, S. 634), liegt 14 km südlich von der Mündung des Arno an der Flachküste des Ligurischen Meeres, wird von… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Livorno — Livorno, im Großherzogthume Toskana, Italiens wichtigster Handelsplatz am mittelländischen Meere, unweit der Mündung des Arno, ist schön und regelmäßig gebaut und hat 57,000 Ew. Unter den Prachtgebäuden der Stadt zeichnen sich die majestätische… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Livorno — Aunque la forma tradicional española del nombre de esta ciudad italiana es Liorna, hoy se emplea con preferencia la forma italiana Livorno: «Tuvimos que [...] demorarnos un par de días en Livorno y, en Génova, esperar [...] la llegada de un… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • Livorno — Livorno, ciudad en la Toscana, Italia; capital de la provincia homónima. Población: 170,500. Constituye un centro industrial a orillas del Mediterráneo, con importante presencia de los sectores químico y metalúrgico. Importante refinería de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Livorno — Livorno, die Handeltreibende. Sie nimmt nämlich unter den Handelsstädten des Mittelmeeres eine bedeutende Stelle ein. So heisst Lucca die Gewerbtreibende, weil sie eine entwickelte Industrie hat. It.: Livorno la commerciale, Lucca l industriosa.… …   Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon

  • Livorno [1] — Livorno, Stadt in der toscanischen Provinz Pisa am Mittelländischen Meere, der Felseninsel Meloria gegenüber; hat nach dem Lande zu einige Befestigung, Citadelle, Festungswerke gegen das Meer zu, mehrere Plätze, auf deren einem Denkmal Ferdinands …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Livorno [2] — Livorno, Marktflecken u. Hauptort des gleichnamigen Mandamento in der piemontesischen Provinz Vercelli, an einem aus der Dora abgeleiteten Kanal u. unweit der Turin Mailänder Eisenbahn; schöne Kirche; Seidenbau, Reisbau, 5170 Ew …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Livórno [1] — Livórno, die kleinste der ital. Provinzen, in der Landschaft Toskana, besteht nur aus dem Stadtkreis L. und der Insel Elba (s. d.) nebst mehreren kleinern Eilanden, grenzt an die Provinz Pisa und das Tyrrhenische Meer und zählt (1901) auf 345 qkm …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Livorno — Livorno, Hafenstadt [s. Beilage: ⇒ Italien] in der mittelital. Prov. L. (345 qkm, 1905: 124.348 E.; Toskana), am Mittelländ. Meer und an einem Kanal zum Arno, (1901) 98.321 E.; bedeutender Handelsplatz; Marineakademie; Industrie (bes. Schiffbau) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.