/kar'euh geuhn dah"/; Russ. /keuh rddeuh gun dah"/, n.
a city in central Kazakhstan. 608,000.

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Kazak  Qaraghandy 

      city in central Kazakhstan. It lies at the centre of the important Qaraghandy (Karaganda) coal basin. It is the second largest city in the republic and derives its name from the caragana bush, which grows abundantly in the surrounding steppe.

      The first settlement appeared in 1856, and small-scale coal mining began in 1857 to supply a nearby copper smelter. Mining ceased in the 1920s but expanded quickly after 1931 following completion of a railway link and a decree that the Qaraghandy basin was to be developed as a major coal-mining area to supply industry in the Urals. Karaganda was made a city in 1934 and an oblast (province) administrative centre in 1936; by 1939 its population had swollen to 166,000. Forced labour was extensively used in its development.

      The city's importance increased during World War II, when the Germans occupied the Donets basin, and the Parkhomenko coal-mining machinery works was among those evacuated to Karaganda. Coal mining and the production of coal-mining machinery still dominate Karaganda's industry, but there are also major iron and steel works, utilizing ore from Karazhal and Lisakovsk; in addition, there are large cement plants and also food and other light industries. By 1972 the concentration of industry in Karaganda had reduced water supplies in a region already semiarid and necessitated the construction of the Irtysh-Karaganda (Ertis-Qaraghandy) Canal, dedicated in that year.

      The city consists of several dozen settlements scattered over an area of approximately 300 square miles (800 square km), but there are two main areas, the Old and New towns. The Old Town grew up in a haphazard fashion in the early years and includes more than 20 pit settlements, whereas the New Town, to the south, begun in 1934 and designed as the cultural and administrative centre, has wide streets, parks, and such monumental buildings as the Miners' Palace of Culture. There are several institutions of higher education, including a university (1972) and medical and polytechnic institutes. There are also a number of research and design institutes, a museum, theatres, a television centre, and a botanical garden. Pop. (1995 est.) 573,700.

      oblast (province), central Kazakhstan. It lies mostly in the Kazakh Uplands in a dry steppe zone, rising gradually in elevation eastward to a maximum in the Karkaraly Mountains of 5,115 feet (1,559 m). The principal rivers, the Nura and Sarysu, are in the west, in the Musbel lowland. The climate is continental (tending to extremes) and dry, with severe winters, marked by prolonged snowstorms and hurricane-force winds. The principal economic resource of the oblast is the Karaganda coal basin, although manganese, tungsten, molybdenum, and lead and zinc are also mined; other mineral resources of the oblast include barite, nickel, iron ore, and copper.

      Spring wheat and fodder grasses are grown, and sheep, horses, and camels are bred in more arid regions of the west. Dairying, truck gardening, and the cultivation of millet are carried on around Karaganda but must be supported by irrigation, the water being brought by the Irtysh-Karaganda Canal, which also supplies the industry of Karaganda city. Although large-scale industrialization began only about 1930, partly through the use of forced labour, Karaganda (q.v.) is now a major industrial centre of Kazakhstan. The chief cities, after Karaganda, the capital, are Temirtau, Shakhtinsk, Saran, Abay, and Karkaralinsk. The population is about 85 percent urban, with the Kazakhs predominating. Russians, Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars, and Belarusians also live there, many of the last four groups having been deported from their European homelands by Soviet authorities. Area 45,520 square miles (117,900 square km). Pop. (1991 est.) 1,339,900.

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Universalium. 2010.

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