John of Salisbury

c1115-80, English prelate and scholar.

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born 1115/20, Salisbury, Wiltshire, Eng.
died Oct. 25, 1180, Chartres, France

English prelate and scholar.

A noted Latinist who studied with Peter Abelard and other important theologians in Paris, John was a leading figure in the renaissance of the 12th century. He served as secretary to Theobald and St. Thomas Becket, archbishops of Canterbury. He wrote Historia pontificalis (с 1163) and the Policraticus and the Metalogicon (both 1159) His defense of Becket and of ecclesiastical liberties led Henry II to exile him to France (1163). He returned to England after the reconciliation of Henry and Becket and was in Canterbury Cathedral when Becket was assassinated. He later wrote a hagiography of Becket and promoted the cult of the murdered archbishop. As bishop of Chartres (from 1176), he was active in the third Lateran Council.

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▪ English scholar

born 1115/20, Salisbury, Wiltshire, Eng.
died Oct. 25, 1180, probably at Chartres, France

      one of the best Latinists of his age, who was secretary to Theobald and Thomas Becket (Becket, Saint Thomas), archbishops of Canterbury, and who became bishop of Chartres.

      After 1135 he attended cathedral schools in France for 12 years and studied under Peter Abelard (1136). He was a clerk in Theobald's household in 1148 and during the next five years was mainly employed by the archbishop on missions to the Roman Curia. His Historia pontificalis (c. 1163) gives a vivid description of the papal court during this period, partly through its character sketches. From 1153 John's main duty was to draft the archbishopric's official correspondence with the Curia, especially in connection with appeals. In the late summer of 1156 this activity angered King Henry II, who regarded him as a champion of ecclesiastical independence.

      The crisis passed, but to some extent it influenced John's two books, the Policraticus and the Metalogicon (both 1159), in which his general intention was to show his contemporaries that in their thought and actions they were defecting from the true task of humanity. His work represented a protest against the professional specialization slowly developing in royal and papal administration and in the universities. He unfavourably contrasted the way of life followed by courtiers and administrators with an ideal practice derived from Latin poets and from classical and patristic writers.

      Out of favour with Henry, John was exiled to France (1163) shortly before Becket was exiled. From his refuge in the monastery of Saint-Rémi at Reims, John wrote many letters assessing the prospects of the Canterbury case. After the reconciliation of Henry and Becket, he returned to England (1170) and was in Canterbury Cathedral when Becket was assassinated (Dec. 29, 1170). Thereafter, John was occupied with collecting Becket's correspondence and preparing a biographical introduction. He became bishop of Chartres in 1176 and took an active part in the third Lateran Council (March 1179). He was buried at Chartres.

Additional Reading
D. McGarry (ed.), The Metalogicon (1955); M. Chibnall (ed.), Memoirs of the Papal Court (1956); H.E. Butler and W.J. Millor (eds.), The Letters of John of Salisbury.

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Universalium. 2010.

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