Jena

/yay"nah/, n.
a city in central Germany: Napoleon decisively defeated the Prussians here in 1806. 103,000.

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      city, Thuringia Land (state), east-central Germany. It lies on the Saale River, east of Weimar. First mentioned in the 9th century as Jani, it was chartered in 1230 and belonged to the margraves of Meissen from the mid-14th century. The house of Wettin (Wettin Dynasty), which held the margraviate and (after 1423) the electorate of Saxony, was divided in 1485, and Jena fell to the dukes of the Ernestine branch. From 1672 to 1690 it was the centre of the duchy of Saxe-Jena, and it remained a ducal residence until 1918. Napoleon won a notable victory over the Prussian army on the heights north of Jena in 1806 (see Battle of Jena (Jena, Battle of)).

      A rail junction, Jena is a major centre for optical and precision instruments and glass products. The city has a significant pharmaceutical industry and several biotechnology and microelectronics firms.

      The city's Friedrich-Schiller University was founded by the elector John Frederick the Magnanimous in 1548 as an academy and was raised to university status in 1577. It flourished under the duke Charles Augustus, patron of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von), from 1787 to 1806, when the philosophers Johann Fichte (Fichte, Johann Gottlieb), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich), and Friedrich von Schelling (Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von) and the writers August von Schlegel (Schlegel, August Wilhelm von) and Friedrich Schiller (Schiller, Friedrich von) were on its teaching staff. It was long in the forefront of German universities in the liberal acceptance of new ideas. The evolutionist Ernst Haeckel (Haeckel, Ernst) was prominent at the university in the mid-19th century, and Karl Marx (Marx, Karl) received a doctor's degree in absentia in 1841. A prominent landmark in Jena is the university's tower (400 feet [122 metres]).

      Jena suffered severe damage in World War II, but it has been restored. Notable structures are the old university buildings, the 14th-century town hall, and St. Michael's Church (1438–1528). Numerous towers remain from the medieval fortifications. University buildings (1906–08) occupy the site of the old ducal palace where Goethe wrote his novel Hermann und Dorothea. The city is also home to the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry, Chemical Ecology, and Economics. There are botanical gardens, a planetarium, and civic and university museums. Pop. (2003 est.) 102,634.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Jena — Jena, 1) Amt im Kreise Weimar Jena (Großherzogthum Weimar), ohne die Stadt J. 8200 Ew.; J. war ehedem, von 1672–90, Herzogthum einer Nebenlinie von Weimar, von Bernhard, Sohn des Herzogs Wilhelm von Sachsen Weimar, errichtet, mit dessen Sohn… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • jena — JENÁ, jenez, vb. I. 1. tranz. (Despre obiecte de îmbrăcăminte sau încălţăminte) A strânge, a apăsa, a roade, a supăra. ♦ fig. A stânjeni, a deranja, a incomoda. 2. refl. A avea un sentiment de reţinere faţă de ceva; a se ruşina, a se sfii. – Din… …   Dicționar Român

  • Jena — Jena, LA U.S. town in Louisiana Population (2000): 2971 Housing Units (2000): 1264 Land area (2000): 5.375160 sq. miles (13.921599 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 5.375160 sq. miles (13.921599 sq …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Jena, LA — U.S. town in Louisiana Population (2000): 2971 Housing Units (2000): 1264 Land area (2000): 5.375160 sq. miles (13.921599 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 5.375160 sq. miles (13.921599 sq. km)… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Jena — Jȇna ž DEFINICIJA grad na rijeci Saale, Njemačka; 101.900 stan.; poznata proizvodnja vatrostalnog stakla i optičkih instrumenata (Zeiss) [jena staklo; jena posuđe] …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Jena — Jena, Stadt in S. Weimar Eisenach, an der Saale, (1900) 20.686 (1905: 26.355) E., Garnison, den thüring. Staaten (außer Schwarzburg S.) gemeinsame Universität (seit 1558) und Oberlandesgericht, Amtsgericht, Gymnasium, zwei… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jena — es una ciudad del centro este de Alemania, en el land de Turingia, a orillas del río Saale (afluente del río Elba), al este de Weimar, cerca de Érfurt. * * * Jena, batalla de ► C. del E de Alemania, en el estado de Turingia; 105 825 h. Sede de la …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Jena — Jena, seit 1557 Universitätsstadt der herz. sächs. Lande, liegt an der Saale, hat 6000 Ew., besitzt eine Menge wissenschaftliche Institute, eine orthopädische und Hebammen , eine Heil und Irrenanstalt, eine Sternwarte, botanischen Garten,… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Jena — Jena, sachsen weimarʼsche Stadt an der Saale mit 6700 E., einer 1547 gestifteten Universität, die gute Sammlungen besitzt und in den ersten Decennien dieses Jahrh. ihre Blütezeit hatte. Napoleons großer Sieg über die Preußen 14. Oktbr. 1806 …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

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