Iroquois


Iroquois
/ir"euh kwoy', -kwoyz'/, n., pl. Iroquois, adj.
n.
1. a member of a North American Indian confederacy, the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, and later the Tuscaroras.
adj.
2. belonging or relating to the Iroquois or their tribes.
[1660-70, Amer.; < F: adaptation of an unidentified term in an Algonquian language]

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Any of six North American members of the Iroquois Confederacy living mostly in southern Ontario and Quebec, Can.

, and in New York, Wisconsin, Ohio, and Oklahoma, U.S. The name Iroquois is a French derivation of Irinakhoiw, meaning "Rattlesnakes," their Algonquian enemy's epithet. They call themselves Hodenosaunee, meaning "People of the Longhouse." The Iroquois were semisedentary, practiced agriculture, palisaded their villages, and dwelled in longhouses that lodged many families. Women worked the fields and, when they became clan elders, helped determine the makeup of village councils. Men built houses, hunted, fished, and made war. Iroquoian mythology was largely preoccupied with supernatural aggression and cruelty, sorcery, torture, and cannibalism. Their formal religion consisted of agricultural festivals. Warfare was ingrained in Iroquois society, and war captives were often tortured for days or made permanent slaves. All together the various Iroquois tribes number about 70,000 members, with the Mohawk making up more than half that figure.

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people
 any member of the North American Indian tribes speaking a language of the Iroquoian family—notably the Cayuga, Cherokee, Huron, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora, in addition to the Iroquois proper. The name Iroquois is a French derivation of Irinakhoiw, meaning “rattlesnakes,” their Algonquian enemy's epithet. They call themselves Hodenosaunee, meaning “people of the longhouse.” The Iroquoian linguistic groups occupied a continuous territory around Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Erie, in present-day New York state and Pennsylvania (U.S.) and southern Ontario and Quebec (Canada); they should not be confused with the Iroquois Confederacy, as the latter comprised a subset of five, and later six, tribes from within the broader language family.

      As was typical of Eastern Woodlands Indians before colonization, the Iroquois were semisedentary agriculturists who palisaded their villages in time of need. Each village typically comprised several hundred persons. Iroquois people dwelt in large longhouses (longhouse) made of saplings and sheathed with elm bark, each housing many families. The longhouse family was the basic unit of traditional Iroquois society, which used a nested form of social organization: households (each representing a lineage) were divisions of clans, several clans constituted each moiety, and the two moieties combined to create a tribe.

      Groups of men built houses and palisades, fished, hunted, and engaged in military activities. Groups of women produced crops of corn (maize), beans, and squash, gathered wild foods, and prepared all clothing and most other residential goods. After the autumn harvest, family deer-hunting parties ranged far into the forests, returning to their villages at midwinter. Spring runs of fish drew families to nearby streams and lake inlets.

      Kinship and locality were the bases for traditional Iroquois political life. Iroquois speakers were fond of meetings, spending considerable time in council. Council attendance was determined by locality, sex, age, and the specific question at hand; each council had its own protocol and devices for gaining consensus, which was the primary mode of decision making.

      The elaborate religious cosmology of the Iroquois was based on an origin tradition in which a woman fell from the sky; other parts of the religious tradition featured deluge and earth-diver motifs, supernatural aggression and cruelty, sorcery, torture, cannibalism, star myths (myth), and journeys to the otherworld. The formal ceremonial cycle consisted of six agricultural festivals featuring long prayers of thanks. There were also rites for sanctioning political activity, such as treaty making.

      Warfare (war) was important in Iroquois society, and, for men, self-respect depended upon achieving personal glory in war endeavours. War captives were often enslaved or adopted to replace dead family members; losses to battle and disease increased the need for captives, who had become a significant population within Iroquois settlements by the late 17th century.

      Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 80,000 individuals of Iroquois-proper descent; when including the many Iroquois-speaking tribes, these estimates indicated more than 900,000 individuals.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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