- (Gregorio Papareschi)died 1143, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1130-43.
* * *▪ popeoriginal name Gregorio Papareschiborn , Romedied Sept. 24, 1143, Romepope from 1130 to 1143.A cardinal by 1116, Innocent was appointed in 1122 by Pope Calixtus II as one of the ambassadors who drafted the Concordat of Worms (Worms, Concordat of), an agreement ending disputes between the pope and the Holy Roman emperor Henry V over the right of investiture; i.e., whether the papacy or temporal rulers had the right to install bishops and other clergy. In 1123 Gregorio became papal emissary in France. On the night of Pope Honorius II's death (Feb. 13, 1130), a minority elected Gregorio (who took the name of Innocent II), while a majority soon after elected Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni as Anacletus II (Anacletus (II)). Innocent was hastily consecrated, but by June 1130 Anacletus forced him to flee to France. The vindication of Innocent's title owes its success to Archbishop St. Norbert of Magdeburg, Saxony, and to Abbot St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Champagne. Bernard swayed the French Church and also King Henry I of England to Innocent's side. Norbert won over the German Church (October 1130) and the German king Lothar II/III.In March 1131 Innocent met Lothar at Liège and induced him to fight Anacletus. The German army invaded Italy in August 1132 and by the following June occupied all of Rome except the area held by Anacletus' faction. Innocent then crowned Lothar emperor and refused to revise the Concordat of Worms to give civil authorities the right to install clergy. But when Lothar left Italy, Innocent had to flee to Pisa, where he called a council to condemn Anacletus. Lothar reinvaded southern Italy (1136–37) and expelled Anacletus' chief supporter, King Roger II of Sicily. After a quarrel with Innocent over the rulership of the region of Apulia, Lothar died (Dec. 3/4, 1137).The death of Anacletus in January 1138 endangered Roger's position, and, although a successor, Antipope Victor IV, was swiftly elected, Bernard persuaded Victor to resign on May 29, 1138. Innocent convoked the second Lateran Council in April 1139 to end the schism, excommunicate Roger, and sustain his own endorsement (made on Easter 1136) of King Stephen over Empress Matilda as rightful ruler of England. On July 22, 1139, Roger captured Innocent and on July 25 forced the Pope to recognize him as king of Sicily. The two then acknowledged each other's titles in the same year.Innocent confirmed the rule and customs of the Templars, one of the three orders of knighthood founded during the Crusades. At the Council of Sens (1140), Innocent supported Bernard's prosecution of the theologian-philosopher Abbot Peter Abélard (Abelard, Peter) and his supporter, Arnold of Brescia, by condemning them as heretics. The remainder of his pontificate dealt chiefly with two struggles. He fought for church independence when the Romans established a commune with a senate free from papal authority. Innocent also placed France under the interdict—a denial of the sacraments—when King Louis VII of France refused to accept the papal choice for archbishop of Bourges.
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innocent — innocent, ente [ inɔsɑ̃, ɑ̃t ] adj. et n. • 1080; lat. innocens, de nocere « nuire » 1 ♦ Qui n est pas souillé par le mal. ⇒ pur; immaculé. Vie innocente, simple et vertueuse. Spécialt Qui ignore le mal, est pur et sans malice. ⇒ candide.… … Encyclopédie Universelle
innocent — innocent, ente (i no san, san t ) adj. 1° Qui ne nuit point, qui ne fait point de mal. L agneau est un animal innocent. • Mais, seigneur, épargnez un enfant innocent, VOLT. Orphel. III, 2. Il se dit des choses dans le même sens. Un remède … Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré
Innocent VI — Pape de l’Église catholique Nom de naissance … Wikipédia en Français
Innocent XI — Pope Innocent XI † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi) Born at Como, 16 May, 1611; died at Rome, 11 August, 1689. He was educated by the Jesuits at Como, and studied jurisprudence at Rome and Naples … Catholic encyclopedia
INNOCENT° — INNOCENT°, name of 13 popes. INNOCENT II (Gregorio Papareschi), pope 1130–43. His was an uncanonical election because the majority of the cardinals voted for anacletus ii (Pietro Pierleoni). The Jews of Rome supported Anacletus, whose opponents… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
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Innocent II — Pope Innocent II † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent II (Gregorio Papereschi) Elected 14 Feb., 1130; died 24 Sept., 1143. He was a native of Rome and belonged to the ancient family of the Guidoni. His father s name is given as … Catholic encyclopedia
Innocent X — Pope Innocent X † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent X (Giambattista Pamfili) Born at Rome, 6 May, 1574; died there, 7 January, 1655. His parents were Camillo Pamfili and Flaminia de Bubalis. The Pamfili resided originally at… … Catholic encyclopedia
Innocent IV — Pope Innocent IV † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent IV (Sinibaldo de Fieschi) Count of Lavagna, born at Genoa, date unknown; died at Naples, 7 December, 1254. He was educated at Parma and Bologna. For some time he taught… … Catholic encyclopedia
innocent — INNOCENT, [innoc]ente. adj. Qui n est point coupable. Il est innocent du crime dont on l accuse. il en est innocent. deffendre, proteger les innocents. persecuter les innocents. opprimer, accabler, condamner l innocent. il fut absous. & reconnu… … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
innocent — in·no·cent / i nə sənt/ adj: characterized by innocence Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996. innocent I … Law dictionary