Ibrahim Pasha

/ib'rddah heem" pah"shah/
1789-1848, Egyptian general: governor of Syria 1833-40 (son of Mehemet Ali).

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born 1789, Kavalla, Rumelia
died Nov. 10, 1848, Cairo, Egypt

Egyptian general.

After helping train the new Egyptian army, he won military fame in Syria, defeating an Ottoman force, and Syria and Adana were ceded to Egypt, with Ibrahim as governor-general (1833). His administration was relatively enlightened; he created a consultative council and suppressed the feudal regime. Sultan Mahmud II (r. 1808–39) then sent an Ottoman army to invade Syria, and Ibrahim won his greatest victory in 1839 when the Ottoman fleet deserted to Egypt. However, the European powers, fearing the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, forced the Egyptians to evacuate the occupied territories. Ibrahim became viceroy of Egypt in 1848 shortly before his death.

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▪ viceroy of Egypt

born 1789, Kavalla, Rumelia [now Kavála, Greece]
died Nov. 10, 1848, Cairo, Egypt

      viceroy (vali) of Egypt under Ottoman rule and a general of outstanding ability.

      A son, or adopted son, of the famous vali Muḥammad ʿAlī, in 1805 Ibrahim joined his father in Egypt, where he was made governor of Cairo. During 1816–18 he successfully commanded an army against the Wahhabite rebels in Arabia. Muḥammad ʿAlī sent him on a mission to the Sudan in 1821–22, and on his return he helped train the new Egyptian army on European lines. When the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II asked for Egyptian assistance to crush the Greek revolt, an expedition commanded by Ibrahim landed in Greece in 1824 and subdued the Morea (Peloponnese), but a combined British, French, and Russian squadron eventually compelled the Egyptian force to withdraw.

      It was in Syria that Ibrahim and his French chief of staff, O.J.A. Sève (Suleiman Pasha al-Faransawi), won military fame. In 1831–32, after a disagreement between Muḥammad ʿAlī and the Ottoman sultan, Ibrahim led an Egyptian army through Palestine and defeated an Ottoman army at Homs. He then forced the Bailan Pass and crossed the Taurus, gaining a final victory at Konya on Dec. 21, 1832. By the Convention of Kütahya, signed on May 4, 1833, Syria and Adana were ceded to Egypt, and Ibrahim became governor-general of the two provinces.

      Ibrahim's administration was relatively enlightened. At Damascus he created a consultative council of notables and suppressed the feudal regime. But his measures were harshly applied and roused sectarian opposition. Sultan Mahmud resented the Egyptian occupation, and in 1839 an Ottoman army invaded Syria. At Nizip (Nizip, Battle of) on June 24 Ibrahim won his last and greatest victory; the Ottoman fleet deserted to Egypt. Fearing the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, the European powers negotiated the Treaty of London in July 1840, by which Muḥammad ʿAlī forfeited Syria and Adana in return for the hereditary rule of Egypt. British naval forces threatened the Egyptians, who evacuated the occupied territories in the winter of 1840–41. By 1848 Muḥammad ʿAlī had become senile, and Ibrahim was appointed viceroy but ruled for only 40 days before his death.

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Universalium. 2010.

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