graffiti

graffitist, n.
/greuh fee"tee/, n.
1. pl. of graffito.
2. (used with a pl. v.) markings, as initials, slogans, or drawings, written, spray-painted, or sketched on a sidewalk, wall of a building or public restroom, or the like: These graffiti are evidence of the neighborhood's decline.
3. (used with a sing. v.) such markings as a whole or as constituting a particular group: Not much graffiti appears around here these days.
[1850-55; < It, pl. of graffito incised inscription or design, deriv. with -ito -ITE2 of graffiare to scratch, perh. influenced by presumed L *graphire to write; both prob. deriv. of L graphium stylus < Gk grapheîon; cf. GRAPHIC, GRAPHO-, GRAFT1]
Usage. In formal speech and writing GRAFFITI takes a plural verb. In less formal contexts it is sometimes considered a mass noun and is used with a singular verb. The singular GRAFFITO is found mostly in archaeological and other technical writing.

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Form of visual communication, usually illegal, involving the unauthorized marking of public space by an individual or group.

Technically the term applies to designs scratched through a layer of paint or plaster, but its meaning has been extended to other markings. Graffiti is widely considered a form of antisocial behaviour performed in order to gain attention or simply for thrills. But it also can be understood as an expressive art form. Derived from the Italian word graffio ("scratch"), graffiti ("incised inscriptions," plural but often used as singular) has a long history. It has been found in ancient Roman ruins, in the remains of the Mayan city of Tikal in Central America, on rocks in Spain dating to the 16th century, and in medieval English churches. During the 20th century, graffiti in the U.S. and Europe was closely associated with gangs. Graffiti was particularly prominent in major urban centres throughout the world; common targets were subways, billboards, and walls. In the 1990s there emerged a new form of graffiti, known as "tagging," which entailed the repeated use of a single symbol or series of symbols to mark territory.

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art
 form of visual communication, usually illegal, involving the unauthorized marking of public space by an individual or group. Although the common image of graffiti is a stylistic symbol or phrase spray-painted on a wall by a member of a street gang, some graffiti is not gang-related. Graffiti can be understood as antisocial behaviour performed in order to gain attention or as a form of thrill seeking, but it also can be understood as an expressive art form.

      Derived from the Italian word graffio (“scratch”), graffiti (“incised inscriptions,” plural but often used as singular) has a long history. For example, markings have been found in ancient Roman ruins, in the remains of the Mayan city of Tikal in Central America, on rocks in Spain dating to the 16th century, and in medieval English churches. During the 20th century, graffiti in the United States and Europe was closely associated with gangs, who used it for a variety of purposes: for identifying or claiming territory, for memorializing dead gang members in an informal “obituary,” for boasting about acts (e.g., crimes) committed by gang members, and for challenging rival gangs as a prelude to violent confrontations. Graffiti was particularly prominent in major urban centres throughout the world, especially in the United States and Europe; common targets were subways, billboards, and walls. In the 1990s there emerged a new form of graffiti, known as “tagging,” which entailed the repeated use of a single symbol or series of symbols to mark territory. In order to attract the most attention possible, this type of graffiti usually appeared in strategically or centrally located neighbourhoods.

      To some observers graffiti is a form of public art, continuing the tradition, for example, of the murals (mural) commissioned by the U.S. Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project during the Great Depression and the work of Diego Rivera (Rivera, Diego) in Mexico. Like the murals of these artists, great works of graffiti can beautify a neighbourhood and speak to the interests of a specific community. For example, the graffiti in many Hispanic neighbourhoods in the United States is quite elaborate and is regarded by many as a form of urban art. The question of whether such work is an innovative art form or a public nuisance has aroused much debate.

      Graffiti became notoriously prominent in New York City in the late 20th century. Large elaborate multicoloured graffiti created with spray paint on building walls and subway cars came to define the urban landscape. The art world's fascination with artists who functioned outside traditional gallery channels stimulated an interest in this form of self-expression. In the 1980s New York artists such as Keith Haring (Haring, Keith) and Jean-Michel Basquiat (Basquiat, Jean-Michel) gained notoriety for their graffiti and parlayed this recognition into successful careers as painters represented by top galleries.

      Most jurisdictions have laws prohibiting graffiti as vandalism, and in some countries punishment is quite severe. For example, in Singapore violators are subject to caning. During the 1980s and '90s many jurisdictions sought ways to eliminate and remove graffiti, fearing that it would otherwise lead to the debasement of the community. Significant resources were allocated for abatement and other clean-up efforts, and some cities even introduced mural programs or “free walls” to provide legal opportunities for urban youths to express their artistic creativity.

Scott H. Decker Glen D. Curry
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Graffiti 2 — is a new version of the Palm OS handwriting system, Graffiti, that was introduced in 2003. In January of that year PalmSource announced the change and explained that Graffiti 2 was based on CIC’s Jot and would replace the old (original) version… …   Wikipedia

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  • Graffiti — • The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched on the walls of ancient monuments, generally sepulchral, as distinguised from the formal inscriptions engraved on the tombs of the deceased… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Graffiti — Spl mit Farbe auf Wände usw. gesprühte Texte und Bilder per. Wortschatz fremd. Erkennbar fremd (20. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ne. graffiti Pl., dieses aus it. graffito m. Eingeritztes , zu it. graffiare kratzen .    Ebenso nndl. graffiti,… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • graffiti — is in origin a plural word, but its use has developed rapidly. Before the 1960s it was mainly used by art historians and archaeologists to refer to drawings or writing scratched on the walls of ancient buildings (notably at Pompeii). Spray can… …   Modern English usage

  • graffiti — graffíti (ist.) s. n. pl. Trimis de siveco, 24.04.2007. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic  GRAFFÍTI s.n.pl. (arheol.) Inscripţii, desene de pe monumentele antice. ♦ (Curent) Inscripţii zgâriate pe pereţi. [sg. graffito. / < fr. graffiti] …   Dicționar Român

  • graffiti —    Graffiti (spray painting in public spaces) has long been acknowledged as an art form (see the website at www.graffiti.org). However, in mainstream society it is still seen as an entirely deviant activity and ‘offenders’ are described as… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture

  • graffiti — ► PLURAL NOUN (sing. graffito) (treated as sing. or pl. ) ▪ unauthorized writing or drawings on a surface in a public place. ► VERB ▪ write or draw graffiti on. DERIVATIVES graffitist noun. USAGE In Italian the word graffiti is a plu …   English terms dictionary

  • Graffiti — (Матера,Италия) Категория отеля: Адрес: Via Casalnuovo 295, 75100 Матера, Италия …   Каталог отелей

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