glutamic acid

/glooh tam"ik/, Biochem.
an amino acid, HOOCCH2CH2CH(NH2)COOH, obtained by hydrolysis from wheat gluten and sugar-beet residues, used commercially chiefly in the form of its sodium salt to intensify the flavor of meat or other food. Abbr.: Glu; Symbol: E
Also, glutaminic acid /glooh"teuh min"ik, glooh'-/.
[1870-75; GLUT(EN) + AMIC ACID]

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One of the nonessential amino acids, closely related to glutamine.

The two constitute a substantial fraction of the amino acids in many proteins (10–20% in many cases and up to 45% in some plant proteins). An important metabolic intermediate as well as a neurotransmitter molecule in the central nervous system, glutamic acid finds uses in medicine and biochemical research. Its sodium salt is the food flavour enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG).

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      an amino acid occurring in substantial amounts as a product of the hydrolysis of proteins. Certain plant proteins (e.g., gliadin) yield as much as 45 percent of their weight as glutamic acid; other proteins yield 10 to 20 percent. Much of this content may result from the presence of a related substance, glutamine, in proteins; glutamine is converted to glutamic acid when a protein is hydrolyzed. First isolated in 1865, glutamic acid is an important metabolic intermediate. It is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids; i.e., animals can synthesize it from oxoglutaric acid (formed in the metabolism of carbohydrates) and do not require dietary sources. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a salt of glutamic acid, is sometimes used as a condiment for flavouring foods.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Glutamic acid — Glutamic acid …   Wikipedia

  • Glutamic acid — Glutamic Glu*tam ic, a. [Gluten + amic.] (Chem.) Of or pertaining to gluten. [1913 Webster] {Glutamic acid}, a nitrogenous organic acid obtained from certain albuminoids, as gluten; called also {amido glutaric acid}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • glutamic acid — [glo͞o tam′ik] n. [ GLUT(EN) + AM(INO) + IC] a nonessential amino acid, COOH(CH2) 2CH(NH2)COOH: see AMINO ACID …   English World dictionary

  • glutamic acid — glutamic acid. См. глутаминовая кислота. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • glutamic acid — One of twenty amino acids (molecules that join together to form proteins). Glutamic acid may help nerve cells send and receive information from other cells. It is being studied for its ability to decrease or prevent nerve damage caused by… …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • glutamic acid — glutamo rūgštis statusas T sritis chemija formulė HOOCCH(NH₂)CH₂CH₂COOH santrumpa( os) Glu, E atitikmenys: angl. glutamic acid rus. глутаминовая кислота ryšiai: sinonimas – 2 aminopentano dirūgštis …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • glutamic acid — An amino acid; the sodium salt is monosodium glutamate. Cf.:glutamate. g. dehydrogenases SYN: glutamate dehydrogenases. g. hydrochloride a gastric acidifier alleged to aid in digestion; also used for gastric HCl replacement therapy …   Medical dictionary

  • glutamic acid — (= Glu; E; 147 D) One of the 20 a amino acids commonly found in proteins. Plays a central role in amino acid metabolism, acting as precursor of glutamine, proline and arginine. Also acts as amino group donor in synthesis by transamination of… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • glutamic acid — noun A nonessential amino acid, α amino glutaric acid, occurring widely in animal and plant tissues; the salt, monosodium glutamate is used as a flavour enhancing seasoning …   Wiktionary

  • glutamic acid — glu·tam·ic ac·id || ‚gluː tæmɪk‚æsɪd amino acid that is important for acid metabolism, major component of the neurotransmitter glutamate (Biochemistry) …   English contemporary dictionary

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