/gah"win, gaw"-/, n.
Arthurian Romance. one of the knights of the Round Table: a nephew of King Arthur.

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Knight of King Arthur's Round Table.

A nephew of Arthur, he appears in early Arthurian legend as a model of perfection. In later romances, his character is marred by arrogance and by an inability to perceive the significance of the grail. In the 14th-century Middle English poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, he accepted a challenge from a mysterious Green Knight, who offered to let Gawain chop off his head if he could return the blow one year later. When the blow was struck, the Knight picked up his head and left the court, and Gawain set out in search of him. After passing through a series of temptations, Gawain met the Green Knight's blows and suffered only a small wound, his neck protected by a magical green sash.

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▪ legendary knight
      hero of Arthurian legend and romance. A nephew and loyal supporter of King Arthur, Gawain appeared in the earliest Arthurian literature as a model of knightly perfection, against whom all other knights were measured. In the 12th-century Historia regum Britanniae, by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Gawain (or Walgainus) was Arthur's ambassador to Rome; his name (spelled “Galvaginus”) is carved against one of the figures on the 12th-century archivolt of Modena cathedral in Italy. In the verse romances of Chrétien de Troyes in the 12th century, he was never a hero but always a leading character who displayed outstanding prowess, which was, however, surpassed by that of Lancelot (who was inspired by the power of courtly love) and by that of the Grail-winner Perceval (who received spiritual inspiration).

      As the Grail theme began to emerge as an important element of Arthurian romance, in the great prose romances of the 13th century known as the Vulgate cycle, Gawain was no longer seen as the ideal knight. In the Queste del Saint Graal, especially, he was unable to perceive the spiritual significance of the Grail, refused to seek divine aid through the sacraments, relied on his own prowess, and failed utterly in the quest. This deterioration of character was even more marked in later romances, such as the prose Tristan, in which a number of episodes depict him as treacherous and brutal to women. These darker aspects of his character were transmitted to English-speaking readers in Sir Thomas Malory's late 15th-century prose work Le Morte Darthur.

      In Middle English poetry, however, Gawain was generally regarded as a brave and loyal knight. Perhaps his most important single adventure was that described in a fine, anonymous 14th-century poem, Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight, which tells the much older story of a beheading challenge.

      In early Welsh literature, including the Mabinogion and a Welsh translation of Geoffrey's Historia, Gawain appears as Gwalchmei. In several of the romances and in Malory, Gawain's strength waxed and waned with the sun, raising the possibility of a connection with a Celtic solar deity.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Gawain — (pronEng|ˈgɔːwɪn or IPA|/gəˈweɪn/; also called Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein, etc. ) is King Arthur s nephew and a Knight of the Round Table who appears very early in the Arthurian legend s development. He is one of a select number of Round …   Wikipedia

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  • Gawain — [gə wān′; gä′wān΄, gä′win] n. [Fr Gauvain < ? Gmc * Gawin] Arthurian Legend a knight of the Round Table, nephew of King Arthur …   English World dictionary

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  • Gawain — noun (Arthurian legend) a nephew of Arthur and one of the knights of the Round Table • Syn: ↑Sir Gawain • Topics: ↑Arthurian legend • Instance Hypernyms: ↑fictional character, ↑fictitious character, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Gawain — noun Date: 14th century a knight of the Round Table and nephew of King Arthur …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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