gastroenterology

gastroenterologic /gas'troh en'teuhr euh loj"ik/, gastroenterological, adj.gastroenterologist, n.
/gas'troh en'teuh rol"euh jee/, n.
the study of the structure, functions, and diseases of digestive organs.
[1900-05; GASTROENTERO- + -LOGY]

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Medical specialty dealing with digestion and the digestive system.

In the 17th century Jan Baptista van Helmont conducted the first scientific studies in the field; William Beaumont published his own observations in 1833. Lavage (washing out the stomach) and endoscopy were developed in the 19th century, and endoscopy and X rays with a contrast medium were first used to visualize the stomach and digestive organs in the 1890s. Gastroenterologists diagnose and treat disorders of the stomach, intestines, liver, and pancreas, including ulcers, tumours, inflammatory diseases (including ulcerative colitis and ileitis), and rectal disorders.

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 medical specialty concerned with the digestive system (digestive system, human) and its diseases. Gastroenterologists diagnose and treat the diseases and disorders of the esophagus, stomach, intestines (intestine), liver, biliary tract, and pancreas. Among the most common disorders they must deal with are gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastric and duodenal ulcers, malignant tumours, inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, and rectal disorders.

      The first scientific studies of the digestive system were performed by Jan Baptist van Helmont (Helmont, Jan Baptista van) in the 17th century. In 1833 the publication of William Beaumont's (Beaumont, William) observations shed new light on the nature of gastric juice and the digestive process in general.

      A major advance in treatment in the 19th century was the use of gastric lavage (washing out of the stomach) to treat stomach poisoning; this became a standard treatment for all forms of gastric irritation, and the long tube used to introduce the lavage fluid was also adapted to view the stomach for diagnostic use. A tube that could be inserted down the esophagus and upon which a light was mounted to illuminate the area visualized was invented in about 1889; this rigid instrument was soon replaced by the semiflexible gastroscope, developed by Rudolf Schindler in 1932, and then by the flexible fibre-optic gastroscope, developed by Basil Hirschowitz in 1957. In the 1890s Walter Cannon (Cannon, Walter Bradford) used X rays to visualize the stomach and digestive organs, and he also used bismuth salts to coat the gastrointestinal lining and thus make digestive movements visible by fluoroscopy.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gastroenterology — (MeSH heading [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB cgi?mode= term=gastroenterology] ) is the branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and its disorders are studied. Etymologically, the name is a combination of three Ancient Greek words …   Wikipedia

  • Gastroenterology — Специализация: гастроэнтерология Периодичность: 13 выпусков в год Сокращённое название: Gastroenterol. Язык: английский Главный редактор: Anil K. Rustgi …   Википедия

  • gastroenterology — 1904, from GASTRO (Cf. gastro ) + enterology. Related: Gastroenterologist …   Etymology dictionary

  • gastroenterology — [gas΄trōen΄tər äl′ə jē] n. [ GASTRO + ENTER(O) + OLOGY] the medical specialty that is concerned with disorders of the digestive system gastroenterologist n …   English World dictionary

  • gastroenterology — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: circa 1904 a branch of medicine concerned with the structure, functions, diseases, and pathology of the stomach and intestines • gastroenterological adjective • gastroenterologist noun …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • gastroenterology — noun The study of the digestive system, from mouth to anus. May also include the study of accessory organs: pancreas, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts …   Wiktionary

  • gastroenterology — The medical specialty concerned with the function and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, including stomach, intestines, and associated organs. [gastro + G. enteron, intestine, + logos, study] * * * gas·tro·en·ter·ol·o·gy .ent ə räl ə jē n …   Medical dictionary

  • gastroenterology — study of stomach; intestines Sciences and Studies …   Phrontistery dictionary

  • gastroenterology — n. study of the digestive system and its diseases …   English contemporary dictionary

  • gastroenterology — [ˌgastrəʊɛntə rɒlədʒi] noun the branch of medicine which deals with disorders of the stomach and intestines. Derivatives gastroenterological adjective gastroenterologist noun …   English new terms dictionary

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