Erech

/ee"rek, er"ek/, n.
Biblical name of Uruk.

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or Uruk

Ancient city, Mesopotamia.

Located northwest of Ur on the Euphrates River, it was one of the greatest cities of Sumer and was enclosed by brickwork walls that, according to legend, were built by the mythical hero Gilgamesh. Excavations have traced successive cities that date from the prehistoric Ubaid period (с 5000 BC) to Parthian times (126 BC–AD 224), when in с 70 BC an ancient school of learned scribes was still using cuneiform script. Urban life in what is known as the Erech-Jamdat Nasr period (с 3500–2900 BC) is more fully illustrated at Erech than at any other Mesopotamian city.

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▪ ancient city, Iraq
Sumerian  Uruk , Greek  Orchoë , modern  Tall al-Warkāʾ 

      ancient Mesopotamian city located northwest of Ur (Tall Al-Muqayyar) in southeastern Iraq. The site has been excavated from 1928 onward by the German Oriental Society and the German Archeological Institute. Erech was one of the greatest cities of Sumer and was enclosed by brickwork walls about 6 miles (10 km) in circumference, which according to legend were built by the mythical hero Gilgamesh. Within the walls, excavations traced successive cities that date from the prehistoric Ubaid period, perhaps before 5000 BC, down to Parthian times (126 BC–AD 224). Urban life in what is known as the Erech–Jamdat Nasr period (c. 3500–c. 2900 BC) is more fully illustrated at Erech than at any other Mesopotamian city.

      The two principal Sumerian divinities worshiped in ancient Erech appear to have been Anu (An), a sky god, and the goddess Inanna (Ishtar) (“Queen of the Sky”). One of the chief landmarks of the city is the Anu ziggurat crowned by the “White Temple” of the Jamdat Nasr period, which was one of great prosperity—gold, silver, and copper were skillfully worked, and seals and amulets reflected a brilliant miniature craftsmanship.

      The temenos (sacred enclosure) of Eanna, another ziggurat, bore witness to the attention of many powerful kings, including Ur-Nammu (reigned 2112–2095 BC), first king of the 3rd dynasty of Ur. Ur-Nammu also did much for the layout of the city, which then benefited from a Neo-Sumerian revival. Various architectural developments were associated with the Isin-Larsa period (c. 2017–1763) and with the Kassite period (c. 1595–c. 1157). Later rulers, including Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, also built in the district of Eanna.

      The city continued to prosper in Parthian times, when the last of an ancient school of learned scribes was still editing documents (c. 70 BC) in the cuneiform script.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Erech — (Hebrew name ארך, meaning to extract, or draw out ) was an ancient city in the land of Shinar, the second city built by king Nimrod (later Amraphel) after the destruction of the Tower of Babel. The Book of Jasher 11:3 records that this city was… …   Wikipedia

  • Erech — (babylon. Uruk), eine der vier Städte des Nimrodreiches in Sinear oder Babylonien (1. Mos. 10,10), jetzt repräsentiert durch die gewaltigen Trümmerhügel von Warka, etwa halbwegs zwischen Hilla und Korna auf der linken Euphratseite. E. war einer… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • ERECH — (Sum. Unug; Akk. Uruk; modern Warka in Iraq), city mentioned as one of the mainstays of the kingdom of nimrod (Gen. 10:10), and perhaps referred to in Ezra 4:9. In ancient times Uruk lay on the bank of the Euphrates, approximately 40 mi. (65 km.) …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Erech — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt bedarf einer Überarbeitung. Näheres ist auf der Diskussionsseite angegeben. Hilf mit, ihn zu verbessern, und entferne anschließend diese Markierung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Erech —    A hill in the west of Gondor, where was the Stone of Isildur.        The Hill and Stone at the head of the Blackroot Vale.    An ancient site at the feet of the White Mountains in Gondor, though it seems to have predated the foundation of that …   J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle-earth glossary

  • Erech —    (LXX., Orech ), length, or Moon town, one of the cities of Nimrod s kingdom in the plain of Shinar (Gen. 10:10); the Orchoe of the Greeks and Romans. It was probably the city of the Archevites, who were transplanted to Samaria by Asnapper… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Erech — n. biblical name of Uruk; one of the cities in the kingdom of Nimrod (Biblical); city in Gondor located in the far north of the province of Lamedon (in the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Erech — E•rech [[t]ˈi rɛk, ˈɛr ɛk[/t]] n. ara bib geg Biblical name of Uruk …   From formal English to slang

  • Erech — /ee rek, er ek/, n. Biblical name of Uruk …   Useful english dictionary

  • Erech (disambiguation) — Erech can refer to:* Erech the biblical city * Erech (Middle earth) the fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkien s writingsSee also: Uruk (disambiguation) …   Wikipedia

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