- /em ped"euh kleez'/, n.c490-c430 B.C., Greek philosopher and statesman.
* * *born с 490, Acragas, Sicilydied 430 BC, the PeloponneseGreek philosopher, statesman, poet, and physiologist.All that remains of his writings are 500 lines from two poems. He held that all matter was composed of four basic ingredients: fire, air, water, and earth. Like Heracleitus, he held that two forces, love and strife, interact to bring together and separate the four substances. Believing in the transmigration of souls, he declared that salvation requires abstention from the flesh of animals, whose souls may once have inhabited human bodies.
* * *▪ Greek philosopher and scholarborn c. 490 BC, Acragas, Sicilydied 430, the Peloponnese, GreeceGreek philosopher, statesman, poet, religious teacher, and physiologist.According to legend only, Empedocles was a self-styled god who brought about his own death, as dramatized by the English poet Matthew Arnold in “Empedocles on Etna,” by flinging himself into the volcanic crater atop Mount Etna to convince followers of his divinity. To his contemporaries he did indeed seem more than a mere mortal; Aristotle reputedly hailed him as the inventor of rhetoric, and Galen regarded him as the founder of Italian medicine. Lucretius admired his hexametric poetry. Nothing remains of the various writings attributed to him other than 400 lines from his poem Peri physeōs (“On Nature”) and fewer than 100 verses from his poem Katharmoi (“Purifications”).Although strongly influenced by Parmenides, who emphasized the unity of all things, Empedocles assumed instead that all matter was composed of four essential ingredients, fire, air, water, and earth, and that nothing either comes into being or is destroyed but that things are merely transformed, depending on the ratio of basic substances, to one another. Like Heracleitus, he believed that two forces, Love and Strife, interact to bring together and to separate the four substances. Strife makes each of these elements withdraw itself from the others; Love makes them mingle together. The real world is at a stage in which neither force dominates. In the beginning, Love was dominant and all four substances were mixed together; during the formation of the cosmos, Strife entered to separate air, fire, earth, and water from one another. Subsequently, the four elements were again arranged in partial combinations in certain places; springs and volcanoes, for example, show the presence of both water and fire in the Earth.Apparently a firm believer in the transmigration (reincarnation) of souls, Empedocles declared that those who have sinned must wander for 30,000 seasons through many mortal bodies and be tossed from one of the four elements to another. Escape from such punishment requires purification, particularly abstention from the flesh of animals, whose souls may once have inhabited human bodies.Additional ReadingClara Elizabeth Millerd (Clara Elizabeth Millerd Smertenko), On the Interpretation of Empedocles (1908, reprinted 1980).
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Empedocles — M.R.Wright INTRODUCTION Empedocles was a native of Acragas (Agrigento) in Sicily, a Doric colony founded on the south coast of the island in the sixth century BC, which soon grew to rival Syracuse in its prosperity. A line of temples, many of… … History of philosophy
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EMPEDOCLES° — (fifth century B.C.E.), Greek poet, prophet, and natural philosopher who set forth the doctrine of the four elements, which dominated Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin thought in the Middle Ages. Empedocles is known in medieval Jewish circles through… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
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Empedocles — steht für Empedocles (Vulkan), Unterwasservulkan in der Straße von Sizilien Empedokles, Philosoph, Arzt, Politiker, Sühnepriester und Dichter im antiken Griechenland Porto Empedocle, eine Gemeinde auf Sizilien Diese Se … Deutsch Wikipedia
Empédocles — de Agrigento (en griego Εμπεδοκλής) (Agrigento, 495 adC 435 adC), fue un filósofo y político democrático griego. Cuando perdió las elecciones fue desterrado y se dedicó a ser sabio. Empédocles propuso que el mundo esta compuesto por cuatro… … Enciclopedia Universal
Empedocles — of Acragas … Philosophy dictionary
Empedocles — [em ped′ə klēz΄] 495? 435? B.C.; Gr. philosopher & poet … English World dictionary
Empedocles — *cite book|last=Inwood|first=Brad|title=The Poem of Empedocles|year=2001|edition=rev. ed.|publisher=University of Toronto Press|location=Toronto|id=ISBN 0 8020 4820 X *cite book|last=Kingsley|first=Peter|authorlink=Peter Kingsley… … Wikipedia
Empedocles — biographical name circa 490 430 B.C. Greek philosopher & statesman … New Collegiate Dictionary