dysplasia

dysplastic /dis plas"tik/, adj.
/dis play"zheuh, -zhee euh, -zee euh/, n. Pathol.
abnormal growth or development of cells, tissue, bone, or an organ.
[1930-35; DYS- + -PLASIA]

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Abnormal formation of a bodily structure or tissue, usually bone, that may occur in any part of the body.

Several types are well-defined diseases in humans. In the most common, epiphyseal dysplasia, the ends of children's bones (epiphyses) grow and harden very slowly; dwarfism often results (sometimes only in the legs), and degenerative joint disease usually develops by middle age. Large dogs bred for narrow hips may have hip dysplasia, with abnormalities involving the head of the thighbone and the hip socket.

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      malformation of a bodily structure or tissue; the term most commonly denotes a malformation of bone.

      Chondroectodermal dysplasia (Ellis–van Creveld syndrome) is a rare congenital disorder; it is hereditary (autosomal recessive). Affected individuals exhibit heart abnormalities (which may cause early death), extra digits, defective dentition, poorly formed nails, dwarfing (dwarfism), and often knock-knees and fusion of hand bones. The disorder is most commonly seen among the Old Order Amish of Pennsylvania, in which 5 in every 1,000 births are affected.

      Progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Engelmann syndrome) is a not-uncommon hereditary (autosomal recessive) disorder that begins in childhood. The shafts of the long bones and the skull vault become thickened; individuals with the disorder may have bone pain, weak muscles, fatigue, and a stiff, waddling gait.

      Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia is a disorder in which the ends of bones (epiphyses) in children grow and ossify very slowly; dwarfing is a common result but may be limited to the lower limbs. Degenerative joint disease usually develops by middle age, but individuals may be otherwise healthy.

      Chondrodysplasia punctata is a very rare, little-understood disorder in which spots of opaque calcifications are observed in the epiphyseal cartilage at birth. Many infants die within the first year; those who live may exhibit dwarfism, mental retardation (intellectual disability), and congenital cataracts (cataract).

      Metaphyseal dysplasia is a very rare hereditary disorder in which the cortex of the shafts of long bones is thin and tends to fracture; affected persons may be otherwise healthy.

       hip dysplasia is a hereditary condition in dogs, especially in large breeds such as the German shepherd, Old English sheepdog, and Saint Bernard. It includes a range of abnormalities involving the head of the thighbone and the receiving socket in the hip bone.

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Universalium. 2010.

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