Leaning Tower of Pisa
- n.bell tower in Pisa, Italy, which leans approx. 10° from the vertical
* * *White marble campanile in Pisa, Italy, famous for the uneven settling of its foundation, which caused it to lean 5.5 degrees (about 15 ft [4.5 m]) from the perpendicular. Begun in 1173 as the third and final structure of the city's cathedral complex, it was designed to stand 185 ft (56 m) high. Work was suspended several times as engineers sought solutions; the tower, still leaning, was completed in the 14th century. Subsiding at the rate of 0.03 in (1.2 mm) a year, the structure was in danger of collapse, and in 1990 it was closed as engineers undertook a strengthening project that decreased the lean by 17 in (44 cm) to about 13.5 ft (4.1 m). The work was completed in May 2001.
* * *Italian Torre Pendente di Pisamedieval structure in Pisa, Italy, that is famous for the settling of its foundations, which caused it to lean 5.5 degrees (about 15 feet [4.5 metres]) from the perpendicular by the late 20th century. The bell tower, begun in 1173 as the third and final structure of the city's cathedral complex, was designed to stand 185 feet (56 metres) high and was constructed of white marble. Three of its eight stories had been completed when the uneven settling of the building's foundations in the soft ground became noticeable.Bonnano Pisano, the engineer in charge, sought to compensate for the lean by making the new stories slightly taller on the short side, but the extra masonry caused the structure to sink still further. Work was suspended several times as engineers sought solutions, but the tower was ultimately topped out in the 14th century, still leaning.The foundations have been strengthened by the injection of cement grout and various types of bracing and reinforcement, but in the late 20th century the structure was still subsiding, at the rate of 0.05 inch (1.2 mm) per year, and was in danger of collapse. In 1990 the tower was closed and the bells silenced as engineers undertook a major straightening project. Earth was siphoned from underneath the foundations, decreasing the lean by 17 inches (44 cm) to 13.5 feet (4.1 metres); the work was completed in May 2001, and the structure was reopened to visitors. The tower continued to straighten without further excavation, until in May 2008 sensors showed that the motion had finally stopped, at a total improvement of 19 inches (48 cm). Engineers expected the tower to remain stable for at least 200 years.
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Leaning Tower of Pisa — Leaning Tow|er of Pi|sa the Leaning Tower of Pisa a tall round tower in Pisa, Italy, which does not stand straight, but ↑leans to one side. It was built in the 12th century and is popular with tourists … Dictionary of contemporary English
Leaning Tower of Pisa — n. bell tower in Pisa, Italy, which leans approx. 10° from the vertical … English World dictionary
Leaning Tower of Pisa — Infobox religious building building name =Leaning Tower of Pisa infobox width = image size = caption = map type = map size = map caption = location = geo = coord|43|43|23|N|10|23|47|E|type:landmark region:IT PI|display=inline,title religious… … Wikipedia
Leaning Tower of Pisa — noun a tall round marble campanile in Pisa that is not perpendicular; construction was begun in 1174 • Syn: ↑Leaning Tower • Instance Hypernyms: ↑campanile, ↑belfry • Part Holonyms: ↑Pisa … Useful english dictionary
Leaning Tower of Pisa — tower in Italy which leans to its side … English contemporary dictionary
Leaning Tower of Pisa — noun A famous bell tower in the Italian town of Pisa, known for its irregular lean … Wiktionary
Leaning Tower of Pisa, The — a round, marble campanile in Pisa, Italy, begun in 1174 and now 17 ft. (5.2 m) out of the perpendicular in its height of 179 ft. (54 m). * * * … Universalium
Leaning Tower of Pisa, The — a round, marble campanile in Pisa, Italy, begun in 1174 and now 17 ft. (5.2 m) out of the perpendicular in its height of 179 ft. (54 m) … Useful english dictionary
Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa experiment — Vivani s early biography of Galileo informs us of the story that Galileo dropped two objects of different mass from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. He did so as an experiment to disprove Aristotle s theory of gravity, which states that… … Wikipedia
Leaning Tower — of Pisa in Italy … Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games