- Introductiona means of organizing economic activity. It does this primarily by coordinating the decisions of consumers, producers, and owners of productive resources. Millions of economic agents who have no direct communication with each other are led by the price system to supply (supply and demand) each other's wants. In a modern economy the price system enables a consumer to buy a product he has never previously purchased, produced by a firm of whose existence he is unaware, which is operating with funds partially obtained from his own savings.Prices (price) are an expression of the consensus on the values of different things, and every society that permits exchanges between people has prices. Because prices are expressed in terms of a widely acceptable commodity, they permit a ready comparison of the comparative values of various commodities—if shoes are $15 per pair and bread 30 cents per loaf, a pair of shoes is worth 50 loaves of bread. The price of anything is its value in exchange for a commodity of wide acceptability: the price of an automobile may be some 50 ounces of gold or 25 pieces of paper currency. (See also money.)A system of prices exists because individual prices are related to each other. If, for example, copper rods cost 40 cents a pound and the process of drawing a rod into wire costs 25 cents a pound, then it will be profitable to produce wire from a copper rod if its price exceeds 65 cents. Conversely, it will be unprofitable to produce wire if its price falls below 65 cents. Competition will hold the price of wire about 25 cents per pound above that of rods. A variety of such economic forces tie the entire structure of prices together.The system of prices can be arranged to reward or penalize any kind of activity. Society discourages the production of electric shoestring-tying machines by the simple expedient of making such a machine's attainable selling price less than the prices of the resources necessary to produce it. Society stimulates people of great athletic promise to learn golf (rather than polo or cricket) by awarding significant prizes (= prices) to tournament winners. The air in many cities is dirty because no one is charged a price for polluting it and no one can pay a price for having it cleaned.The basic functions of economic systemsEvery economic system (economic systems) provides solutions to four questions: what goods and services will be produced; how they will be produced; for whom they will be produced; and how they will be allocated between consumption (for present use) and investment (for future use). In a decentralized (usually private enterprise (capitalism)) economic system, these questions are resolved, and economic coordination is achieved, through the price mechanism.Product and quantityEven the simpler economy of a traditional society must choose between food and shelter, weapons and tools, or priests and hunters. In a modern economy the potential variety of goods and services that may be produced is immense. Consider, for example, the thousands of new book titles that are published each year—or the hundreds of colours of paint or the thousands of styles of clothing that are brought to the market annually. Each of these actual collections is much smaller than the amount that could be produced.A price system weighs the desires of consumers (consumption function) in terms of the prices they are willing to pay for various quantities of each commodity or service. The payment for the services of a skilled surgeon (a price much influenced by the number of surgeons) reflects the unique nature of those skills for the buyer-patient, whereas the price of an electric popcorn popper reflects the minor convenience it provides. Of course, the amount consumers agree to pay will be influenced by their wealth as well as their desires, but for any single consumer, relative desire is proportional to the price offered.Universal laws are not common in social life. Economists nonetheless place immense confidence in the proposition that the consumer will buy less of any commodity when its price rises. This law of demand is by no means a necessary fact of life; rather it is an empirical rule to which there are no known, reliable exceptions. Bread, caviar, education, narcotics—interested buyers will purchase more of each when its price falls. These demand prices are the guides that in effect tell producers which items to produce and in what quantities. (See supply and demand.)ProductionThe second question an economy must answer involves deciding how the desired goods are to be produced. There is more than one way to grow wheat, train lawyers, refine petroleum, and transport baggage. The efficient production of goods and services requires that certain fundamental rules be followed: no resource (allocation of resources) should be used in producing one thing when it could be producing something more valuable elsewhere, and each product should be made with the smallest-possible amount of resources.A functioning price system induces all participants in the economy to steer their resources toward activities that yield a reward. Jobs that pay a high price for labour will attract workers seeking the reward of a high salary. Crops that yield a greater profit will attract more farmers to cultivate them. Similarly, capital will be drawn from a faltering trade and redirected to an industry where it can earn higher returns.This same price system seeks to achieve production efficiency through competition. If one firm, for instance, can design, produce, and distribute shoes while using fewer resources than its rivals, it will make larger profits; it is therefore motivated to discover more efficient combinations of inputs and plant locations, to devise wage systems to stimulate its workers, to use computers to manage inventories and streamline shipping, and so forth.DistributionThe third question an economy answers involves determining who gets the product. For example, if family A acquires $5,000 worth of goods this year and family B receives five times as much, how is this division to be decided? The incomes of individuals are determined by the quantities of resources (labour skills, capital in all its forms) they own and the prices they receive for the use of these resources. Workers are encouraged by the price system to acquire new skills and to exercise them diligently, and families are encouraged to save (capital accumulation) because of the rewards paid as interest or dividends. Inherited ability and wealth also contribute to the distribution of income.If the price system is working reasonably well (some of the common failures will be noted later), it performs all of these economic functions with remarkable subtlety and precision. Society desires not only the correct amount of wheat but also that it be consumed more or less evenly over the crop year, with a surplus to carry over in case of a partial failure of the next year's crop. The price system provides a seasonal price pattern that encourages the holding of inventories rather than early splurging and richly rewards speculators who correctly anticipate a crop failure and hold grain that will alleviate it. In the same way, the desires of every sizable group of consumers (or resource owners) are registered through the price system; entrepreneurs are incited by price offers to provide opera and musical comedy, kosher food, and Persian delicacies. One might almost say that the price system is devoted to minority rule, since the only pressure toward uniformity is in the possibility of lowering costs of production by standardizing goods.High prices in a properly functioning price system thus serve as incentives to produce more and consume less, and lower prices serve as corresponding deterrents. In addition the price system is a method of communicating information. The English philosopher Herbert Spencer (Spencer, Herbert) once stated, rather ponderously, that only by constant iteration can alien truths be impressed upon reluctant minds: the price system, with its capacity for infinite repetition, is well suited to this sometimes unpleasant task. A higher price of steel scrap, for example, tells thousands of owners and collectors of scrap that more scrap is wanted and that a more exhaustive search for abandoned rails, boilers, radiators, and machines is worth undertaking. A higher price of gasoline tells thousands of automobile drivers that gasoline should be used more sparingly, and the message is repeated each time each driver purchases more gasoline.The workings of the price systemThe complexity and variety of tasks performed by the price system will be illuminated by an examination of three specific economic problems.The choice of occupationIndividuals must be distributed among occupations in such a way as to serve two basic purposes. First, the labourer must (labour economics) be placed where he is most productive—making certain that Enrico Fermi becomes a physicist rather than a chef and that there are not too many plumbers and too few electricians. Second, the individual worker should be given an occupation that is congenial to him; since he will spend a large part of his life at work, it will be a better life if he can choose the type he prefers.The price of labour is the instrument by which workers are distributed among occupations: wages in rapidly growing occupations and rapidly growing parts of the nation are higher than in corresponding employment in declining occupations and areas. The choice of occupation involves, however, much more than simply a comparison of wage rates. The following are a few of the complications: (1) The wages of an occupation must as a rule be sufficient to compensate the costs of training. (2) The wages of an occupation must be sufficient to compensate special disadvantages (such as a large chance of unemployment). (3) Wages must be higher in large cities than in small because living costs are higher in large cities. (4) Wages must compensate workers for their additional skill as they acquire experience (they usually reach a peak of earnings between ages 40 and 55) and thereafter decline as the worker's efficiency declines. (5) Wages will reflect differences in taxation, fringe benefits (pensions, vacations), etc. Accordingly, the wage structure even for a single occupation in a single city is elaborate. When a single wage (price) is imposed upon an occupation, labourers are no longer properly distributed by wages; for example, a city school system that pays all teachers of given experience the same wage finds it difficult to staff its less-attractive schools.The preferences of the individual worker cannot be given full play, or each person would become president of the corporation at a sumptuous salary. Yet the labourer may choose to live in California rather than Maine; then the price system will incite employers to move their operations to California, where they can hire this labourer more cheaply. The labourer may prefer to work long hours or short hours, and employers are induced by wage offers to cater to the labourer's diverse preferences. In fact, it is equally appropriate to speak of the worker's buying conditions of work and of the employer's buying the services of the worker.The conservation of resourcesA society has some resources that can be replaced by investment; timber, for example, is now largely grown as a commercial crop. Farmland is a more ancient example: the fertility of soil can be increased by prudent cultivation. Other resources are not replaceable, such as coal and petroleum. How does the price system conserve these exhaustible resources?The method of using a resource is independent of the pattern over time of income and expenditures that the owner of the resource desires. Suppose that a farm will have a value of $100,000 if it is maintained at a constant level of fertility and yields a yearly income of $10,000 forever but that it can be cultivated (“mined”) intensively to yield $12,000 a year for five years at the cost of a much reduced yield thereafter, with a value of $90,000. Even if the farmer is in urgent need of immediate funds and does not expect to live more than five years, he will still cultivate the farm at the uniform rate. Only then is it worth its maximum value to him, and only then (by sale or mortgage) can he obtain the largest-possible funds even in the near future. In short, one need not adapt his expenditure pattern to his income pattern so long as he can borrow or lend.If the growth of consumption or the decline of reserves threatens the exhaustion of supplies of a resource, then the price of that resource will rise and promise to rise more in the future, and this rise will serve to reduce current consumption and to reward the owner of the resource for holding back much of the supply for the future. This rise in price will therefore also stimulate buyers to find more economical ways of using the commodity (for example, burning the fuel more efficiently) and stimulate producers to find new supplies or substitute products. The price system will therefore ensure that the supply of the resource will be stretched out so that the resource will be available in both the present and the future.Limitations and failures of the price systemThe price system is an extraordinarily powerful instrument in organizing an economic system, but it is subject to three broad classes of limitations.Private and public price controlSometimes prices are not permitted to do their work. Monopolies (monopoly and competition) are able to exert control over prices, and they use it, sensibly enough, to raise their profits above the level allowed by competition. The monopolist (or group of colluding enterprises) sets prices at a level such that prices are above costs or, to use words of identical significance, such that resources earn more in the monopolized industry than they can earn elsewhere. The basis of the monopoly is its ability to prevent outsiders from entering the industry to share in the unusual profits and, by the act of producing, actually serve to eliminate them.The fixing of prices by monopolists reduces the income of society. This is, in fact, the only well-established criticism (on grounds of efficiency) to be levied against monopolies; there is no reason to assume that they will make products less-suited to consumer tastes or innovate more slowly or pay lower wages or otherwise misallocate resources. But the basic inefficiency led, first in the United States in 1890 and then increasingly in European nations, to governmental policies to maintain or restore competition.Public price control (incomes policy) has two aspects. A large part of public regulation is intended to correct monopolistic pricing (or other failures of the price system); this includes most public-utility regulation in the United States (transportation, electricity, gas, etc.). Whatever the success of these endeavours—and on the whole there has been a substantial decline in confidence in the regulatory bodies—they are usually instructed to achieve the goals of an efficient price system.Other public price controls are designed to serve ends outside the reach of the price system. Prices of farm products are regulated (raised) in most nations with the intention of improving farmers' incomes, and the fixing of interest rates paid by banks is undertaken to improve bank earnings. Such policies are invariably defended on various economic and ethical grounds but reflect primarily the political strength of large and well-organized producer groups.Externalities and the price systemEven when prices are freely established by competition, there is a class of economic relationships called “externalities” not efficiently controlled by prices. These may be illustrated by the air pollution caused by automobiles. Since no single automobile makes a significant contribution to air pollution, the owner has no incentive to bear the cost of installing antipollution devices even though all drivers would be better off if each did so. Yet if there are many automobiles in a region, it would be prohibitively expensive for drivers to contract with one another to have each install devices in his automobile to reduce pollution. The external effects of any one automobile's exhaust fumes are so diffuse and affect any one person so triflingly that they cannot be regulated by the price system.The class of “externalities” is as broad as the class of actions that have effects upon people who are not parties to the contracts governing the actions. An attractive garden pleases passers-by, but they cannot be charged a portion of its cost. A new piece of scientific knowledge will prove useful to unknown persons. These two examples indicate that some externalities are economically trivial and some are highly important.When the price system cannot deal with diffused effects, other social controls often take its place. The state invokes a whole arsenal of policies to deal with externalities, of which the following are only examples: (1) The state may subsidize activities that do not end in a product that can be sold. Thus, basic scientific research that does not lead to patentable processes is subsidized. (2) Individuals may be compelled to act uniformly in areas where contracts would be too expensive; traffic laws, zoning laws, and compulsory vaccination are examples. (3) The state may itself undertake an activity that cannot be financed by sale of services, the most obvious example being national defense.An interesting type of externality is the problem of highway congestion (traffic control). Any one person's presence on a highway at a time and place of peak density has only a negligible effect upon others, so that, except on toll roads, private contracts have not been feasible. The state itself has not been able to deal effectively with highway congestion. More highways can be built until no highway is ever crowded, but this would be intolerably expensive. The state has lacked a method of inducing drivers to shift to less-crowded hours and routes by charging fees to those drivers who impose high congestion costs by driving at peak times. Recent developments in technology may make it feasible to use the price system to reduce congestion. For example, cameras at appropriate points could photograph automobile licenses, and a computer could accumulate the charges on the basis of route and time for each automobile. Then only a person for whom travel at peak times was worth, for example, 25 cents per mile would impose (and pay for) the congestion he created.Imperfect knowledge and tastesAnother limitation to which the price system is subject has to do with the control of knowledge and tastes. To the extent that an economic actor, whether a consumer, a labourer, or an investor, is poorly informed, he is likely to make decisions whose consequences are much different from those he desired and expected. What follows relates only to consumer decisions, but parallel issues arise in labour markets, securities markets, etc.A consumer can satisfy his desires only if he makes intelligent purchases—that is, only if the goods he buys are what he believes them to be. How can the consumer know whether the meat is free of disease or whether the washing machine will function well and long or whether the fabric of the garment is one synthetic fibre or another? To ascertain these facts personally, the consumer would have to be a versatile scientist equipped with a superb laboratory, and then he would need to spend so much time testing goods that he would have little time to enjoy them.In some measure the consumer does experiment in his buying: whenever he buys a thing repeatedly, experience tells him much concerning its properties. Direct experience is a sufficient guide in buying celery or hiring domestic servants, but usually the purchase of information takes a less-direct form. The city's premier department store can sell at prices somewhat higher than less-well-known retailers (marketing), and the difference represents the payment of a price for reliability, responsibility, and the guarantee of quality. In parallel fashion the consumer buys the washing machine of a company that made his excellent refrigerator. Occasionally, information is bought directly: the advice of a lawyer, the knowledge of an appraiser, the taste of an interior decorator.The most important and controversial method of informing consumers is by advertising. Many critics are outraged by the self-serving statements of sellers, some of whom indubitably provide irrelevance and deception rather than information. Yet the informational content of advertising may not be as deficient as its critics believe; advertising itself meets two market tests. In the first place, the direct sale of information by consumer advisory services has never become important, although there are no obstacles to entering this business. In the second place, there has been a general, sustained improvement in the quality of consumer goods over time: the automobile tire goes many more miles than formerly; the airplane flies more safely.Nevertheless, recent public policy has paid great attention to increasing the safety of products and to raising the accuracy of advertising claims.Knowledge is sometimes difficult to distinguish from taste: does the consumer who persists in smoking cigarettes have inadequate knowledge or simply different comparative values for the pleasures and risks of smoking? Censorship, in any event, is fairly common in every economic system: no society allows young children or incompetents full freedom of action or allows the unlimited sale of narcotics. Since the price system never forbids an effective demand (a demand backed by a willingness to pay the supply price), some form of restriction of prices is therefore necessary if certain tastes are to be forbidden or restricted. Compulsory school attendance can be viewed as, in effect, a form of censorship, and so are the controls on sale of firearms and the taxes on tobacco and liquor.Noncapitalist price systemsThe foregoing discussion has been confined to the price system as it exists in capitalist economies. The communist (communism) countries have prices, but not autonomous price systems; in those countries the direction of economic (economic planning) activity is largely in the hands of the central authorities, and prices are used mainly as accounting devices. None of the three allocative functions of an economy—determination of what will be produced, of how it will be produced, and of who will get the product—is performed by the price mechanism in the socialist economies.The relative scarcities that money prices measure exist, of course, in all countries and would exist in a world where no money or exchanges were allowed. Robinson Crusoe had a problem of allocating his time between sleep, garnering food, building shelter, etc.; and he confronted implicit costs of extending any one activity, for more food meant less of other things. The economist calls these implicit exchange ratios “shadow prices,” and they appear in all areas of life in which deliberate choices are made.Price systems are therefore the result of scarcity. The basic proposition of economics, that scarcities are essentially ubiquitous, is often phrased as “there is no such thing as a free lunch”; and it reminds one that the price of the lunch may be future patronage, a reciprocal lunch, or a boring monologue. The task of economic organization is the task of devising price systems that allow a society to achieve its basic goals.George J. Stigler Ed.Additional ReadingThe classic work on the history of economic theory, particularly of value theory, is Joseph Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, ed. by Elizabeth Boody Schumpeter (1954, reissued 1986). Pioneering works on the informational role of the price system are presented in F.A. Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order (1948), in particular the essays “The Use of Knowledge in Society” and “Economics and Knowledge.” An excellent brief discussion can be found in George J. Stigler, Essays in the History of Economics (1965, reprinted 1987), especially essays 5, 6, and 12. Advanced works on modern value theory are J.R. Hicks, Value and Capital, 2nd ed. (1950, reissued 1974); and Paul A. Samuelson, Foundations of Economic Analysis, enlarged ed. (1983).Major historical treatises include Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vol. (1776, reissued in 1 vol., 1991); and John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy, 2 vol. (1848, reissued in 1 vol., 1994). Selected applied analyses include R.A. Radford, “The Economic Organization of a P.O.W. Camp,” Economica, 12:189–201 (1945), an account of the evolution of a cigarette-based price system; and Reuben A. Kessel, R.H. Coase, and Merton H. Miller (eds.), Essays in Applied Price Theory (1980).Seminal works in the history of value theory include David Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817, reissued 1981); F.Y. Edgeworth, Mathematical Psychics (1881, reprinted 1967); Vilfredo Pareto, Cours d'économie politique, 2 vol. (1896–97); J.R. Hicks and R.D.G. Allen, “A Reconsideration of the Theory of Value,” Economica, New Series, 2 parts, 1:52–76,196–219 (1934); R.G.D. Allen, “Professor Slutsky's Theory of Consumers' Choice,” The Review of Economic Studies, 3:120–129 (1936); Carl Menger, Principles of Economics (1950, reissued 1981; originally published in German, 1871); Léon Walras, Elements of Pure Economics; or, The Theory of Social Wealth (1954, reprinted 1984; originally published in French, 1874); W. Stanley Jevons, The Theory of Political Economy, 5th ed. (1957); and Alfred Marshall, Principles of Economics, 9th ed., 2 vol. (1961), also discussing price.William J. Baumol George J. Stigler Ed.
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